Applications of Red-Black Trees
Red-black trees offer worst-case guarantees for insertion time, deletion time, and search time. Not only does this make them valuable in time-sensitive applications such as real-time applications, but it makes them valuable building blocks in other data structures which provide worst-case guarantees; for example, many data structures used in computational geometry can be based on red-black trees.
The AVL tree is another structure supporting O(log n) search, insertion, and removal. It is more rigidly balanced than Red-Black trees, leading to slower insertion and removal but faster retrieval.
Red-black trees are also particularly valuable in functional programming, where they are one of the most common persistent data structures, used to construct associative arrays and sets which can retain previous versions after mutations. The persistent version of red-black trees requires O(log n) space for each insertion or deletion, in addition to time.