wikipedia的定义：“In computer science, a smart pointer is an abstract data type that simulates a pointer while providing additional features, such as automatic garbage collection or bounds checking. These additional features are intended to reduce bugs caused by the misuse of pointers while retaining efficiency. Smart pointers typically keep track of the objects they point to for the purpose of memory management.
Several types of smart pointers exist. Some work with reference counting, others by assigning ownership of the object to a single pointer.
In C++, smart pointers may be implemented as a template class that mimics, by means of operator overloading, the behaviour of traditional (raw) pointers, (e.g.: dereferencing, assignment) while providing additional memory management algorithms.