datatable().select报错

非非非非 2021-06-11 16:23:27

报错信息:

2021-06-11 15:27:15,448 [1] ERROR  - FLIGHT_DATE:FLIGHT_DATE = DATE'2021-04-01' and FLIGHT_CODE='CF9019' and DEPARTURE_AIRPORT='ZGGG' and ARRIVAL_AIRPORT='ZBAD' AND AIRCRAFT_CODE='B2135'
********************************************
2021-06-11 15:27:15,448 [1] ERROR  - 错误
System.Data.SyntaxErrorException: Syntax error: Missing operand after ''2021-04-01'' operator.
   at Aero.Airp.Client.frmAcarsParseView.barButtonItem2_ItemClick(Object sender, ItemClickEventArgs e)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarItem.OnClick(BarItemLink link)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarBaseButtonItem.OnClick(BarItemLink link)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarItemLink.OnLinkClick()
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarItemLink.OnLinkAction(BarLinkAction action, Object actionArgs)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarButtonItemLink.OnLinkAction(BarLinkAction action, Object actionArgs)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.BarItemLink.OnLinkActionCore(BarLinkAction action, Object actionArgs)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.ViewInfo.BarSelectionInfo.ClickLink(BarItemLink link)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.ViewInfo.BarSelectionInfo.UnPressLink(BarItemLink link)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.Controls.CustomLinksControl.OnMouseUp(MouseEventArgs e)
   at System.Windows.Forms.Control.WmMouseUp(Message& m, MouseButtons button, Int32 clicks)
   at System.Windows.Forms.Control.WndProc(Message& m)
   at DevExpress.XtraBars.Controls.DockedBarControl.WndProc(Message& msg)
   at System.Windows.Forms.Control.ControlNativeWindow.OnMessage(Message& m)
   at System.Windows.Forms.Control.ControlNativeWindow.WndProc(Message& m)
   at System.Windows.Forms.NativeWindow.Callback(IntPtr hWnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wparam, IntPtr lparam)

 

 

代码信息:

 

  DataRow[] Rows = ds.Tables[0].Select(string.Format("FLIGHT_DATE = DATE'2021-04-01' and FLIGHT_CODE='CF9019' and DEPARTURE_AIRPORT='ZGGG' and ARRIVAL_AIRPORT='ZBAD' AND AIRCRAFT_CODE='B2135'"));
                           

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xuzuning 2021-06-14

FLIGHT_DATE:FLIGHT_DATE = '2021-04-01'

 

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非非非非 2021-06-15
@xuzuning 是select方法里边不能做date转换吗,我去掉date就好了
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Release history (reverse chronological order) This release 1.3.7.1 Release date: December 11, 2006 Known bugs: none Fixes/features added from previous release: a) added support for multiple filters per process in VsDrvr.dll b) updated manual Previous release 1.3.5 Release date: October 11th, 2005 Known bugs: none Fixes/features added from previous release a) added VsSetWavelengthStep and VsGetWavelengthStep functions b) added VsSetWavelengthWavesConfirm() function c) fixed error-handling of VsSetWavelength() In earlier revisions, the error status light was cleared after a VsSetWavelength() call failed, so the user did not see the light turn red to alert that an error had occurred. This has been fixed in 1.35 so the error light remains lit, and an error code is returned. d) added range-check to VsDefinePalette() Previous revisions did not range-check the palette index number, and hard crashes could be produced if out-of-range values were supplied to this routine. Previous release 1.33b Release date: February 9, 2005 Known bugs: none Fixes/features changed from previous release: a) Fixed installer: programmers?guide (vsdrvr.pdf) installed when SDK is selected. Previous release 1.33a Release date: January 10th, 2005 Known bugs: i) SDK programmers?guide is not installed even if SDK is selected. Fixes/features added from previous release a) VsDrvr.dll fixed handling of COMx ports that do not support 460kb The autobaud sequence tries a variety of baud rates, some of which are not supported by RS-232 interfaces (but are supported on USB virtual COM ports). This was not handled properly, so if a call was made to VsOpen when no VariSpec was present, but a later call was made when a filter was present, the latter would fail. b) VsGui added check of which COMx ports are present on computer This program now filters its COMx list and only shows ports which actually exist; it used to show COM1 ?COM8 even if not all of these were present. c) VsGui added automatic filter detection on Configure dialog This checks all ports in turn, and reports the first detected filter. The search order is determined by the order in which the computer lists ports in the Registry. d) VsGui changed to recognize filters as present while initializing In prior revisions, VsGui would not report no filter found if a filter was present but still going through its power-up initialization. Now, a message box is posted to indicate that a filter was found, and the program checks whether initialization is complete, at 1 second intervals. When the filter is done initializing, the VsGui controls become active and report the filter information (serial number, wavelength range, etc). e) VsGui added filter status item to Configure dialog Adjacent the COMx combo box, there is now a text field that indicates filter status as 揘ot found? 揑nitializing? or 揜eady? This field is updated whenever the combo box selection is changed. Previous release 1.32 Release date: July 27th, 2004 Known bugs: COMx port described above as 1.33 fix item a) Fixes/features added from previous release a) VsGui added a sweep feature to enable cycling the filter The wavelength start, stop, and step are adjustable. Cycling can be done a fixed number of times or indefinitely. Previous release 1.30 Release date: June 23rd, 2004 Known bugs: none Fixes/features added from previous release a) New commands VsSetWaveplateAndWaves(), VsGetWaveplateAndWaves(), VsGetWaveplateLimits(), and VsGetWaveplateStages() were added for support of variable retarder models. b) New commands VsSetRetries() and VsSetLatencyMs() were added for control of serial port latency and automatic retry in case of error. c) New commands VsSetMode() and VsGetMode() were added for control of the VariSpec filter抯 triggering and sweep modes d) New command VsGetSettleMs() was added to learn optics settling time e) New commands VsIsDiagnostic() and VsIsEngagedInBeam() were added. These are reserved for CRI use and are not supported for use by end users. f) The command syntax and functionality of the VsSendCommand() function was changed - see description of this command for details g) The VsGui program was modified to add sweep function, and the associated files were added to the file manifest. The new functions are assigned higher ordinal numbers than the earlier commands, so the ordinal numbers assigned to routines in the earlier VsDrvr routines are preserved. This means one may use the new VsDrvr.dll file with applications that were developed and linked with the earlier release, without any need to recompile or relink the application. Of course, to use the new functions one must link the application code with the new .lib file containing these functions. Previous release: 1.20 Release date December 3rd, 2003 Known bugs: a) there is a conflict when one uses the implicit palette to set wavelengths, and also defines palette states explicitly using the VsDefinePalette() function. When the explicitly set palette state overwrites a palette state implicitly associated with a certain wavelength, that wavelength will not be accurately set when one issues the VsSetWavelength() command. This is fixed in release 1.30 Fixes/features added from previous release a) fixes bug with implicit palette in September 8 release b) incorporates implicit retry for command send/reply if error in transmission c) recognizes filters with serial numbers > 60000 (normally VariLC numbers) d) supports binary transfer of >127 bytes Previous release 1.11 Release date September 8, 2003 Known bugs a) implicit palette can fail to create palette entry, causing tuning error b) VsSendBinary() fails if 128 chars or more sent (signed char error) Fixes/features added from previous release a) included VsIsPresent() function omitted from function list of 1.10 release Previous release 1.10 Release date: August 28th, 2003 Known bugs: a) VsIsPresent function not included ?generates 搖nresolved external?at link-time Fixes/features added from previous release: b) added command VsEnableImplicitPalette() to code and documentation added command VsConnect() to code and documentation added command VsClose() to code and documentation added local variable to avoid unnecessary querying of diagnostic status documented that command VsConnect() will not be supported in future documented that command VsDisconnect() will not be supported in future documented that command VsIsConnected() will not be supported in future changed to Windows Installer from previous ZIP file added table summary of commands to this manual Previous release 1.00 Release date: November 5th, 2002 Known bugs: a) none Fixes/features added from previous release b) n/a ?initial releaseDescription This package provides a set of functions to control the VariSpec filter, which may be called from C or C++ programs. It incorporates all aspects of the filter communication, including low-level serial routines. With these routines, one can address the filter as a virtual object, with little need for detailed understanding of its behavior. This simplifies the programming task for those who want to integrate the VariSpec into larger software packages. File manifest All files are contained in a single installer file which includes the following: vsdrvr.h declaration file vsdrvr.lib library stub file vsdrvr.dll run-time library vsdrvr_r1p30.pdf (this file) release notes and programmer抯 guide {sample program using VsDrvr package} registryAccess.cpp registryAccess.h resource.h stdafx.h VsConfigDlg.cpp VsConfigfDlg.h VsGui.cpp VsGui.h VsGui.mak VsGui.rc VsGuiDlg.cpp VsGuiDlg.h VsSweep.cpp VsSweep.h Development cycle In order to use the DLL, one should take the following steps: a) Add #include 搗sdrvr.h?statements to all files that access the VariSpec software b) Add vsdrvr.lib to the list of modules searched by the linker c) Place a copy of vsdrvr.dll in either the folder that includes the executable code for the program being developed; or, preferably, in the windows system folder. Failures in step a) will lead to compiler errors; in step b) to linker errors; in step c) to a run-time error message that 揳 required .DLL file, vsdrvr.dll, was not found? VariSpec filter configuration The VariSpec filter communicates via ASCII commands sent over an RS-232 interface or USB. The RS232 can operate at 9600 or 19,200 baud, while the USB appears as a virtual COMx device. While it appears to be present at either 9600 baud or 115.2 kbaud , the actual data transmission occurs at 12 MBaud over the USB. Each command is terminated with an end-of-line terminator which can be either a carriage-return or line feed . For RS-232 models, the baud rate and terminator character are selected using DIP switches inside the VariSpec electronics module. Default settings are 9600 baud, and the character (denoted 慭r?in the C language). For USB devices, the terminator is always . For latest information, or to determine how to alter the settings from the factory defaults, consult the VariSpec manual. Timing and latency The VariSpec filter takes a finite time to process commands, which adds an additional delay to that imposed by simple communication delays. In general, the time to process a given command is short except for the following operations: ?filter initialization ?wavelength selection ?palette definition The first of these is quite lengthy (30 seconds or more) because it involves measurements and exercising of the liquid crystal optics. The latter two are much faster but still can take a significant amount of time (up to 300 ms) on the older RS-232 electronics due to the computations involved. On the newer, USB electronics, the latter two functions are completed in less than 5 ms. For this reason, the functions that handle these actions offer the option of waiting until the action is complete before returning (so-called synchronous operation); although they can be called in an asynchronous mode where the function returns as soon as all commands have been sent to the VariSpec, without waiting for them to run to completion. Another option is to use implicit palette tables. If this is enabled, by calling the VsEnableImplicitPalette() function, the driver will define the settings for a given wavelength once, then saves the results within the VariSpec for faster access next time that wavelength is used. Subsequent access times are essentially instantaneous, until either all of the 128 palette states are in use, or the palette is cleared via the VsClearPalette() command. The VsIsReady() function can be used to determine whether a filter is done processing all commands. Ideally, one should check VsIsReady() using a timer or the like to wait efficiently, so that the host PC is free to do other tasks while waiting for the VariSpec. The VariSpec always processes each command to completion before starting on the next command, and it has a 256 byte input buffer, so there is no problem issuing several commands at once; they will all be executed, and in the order given. This also indicates another way to coordinate one抯 program with the VariSpec filter: one can issue any of the VsGetxxx() functions, which query the filter. Since these do not return until the filter has responded, one may be sure that there are no pending commands when the VsGetxxx() function completes. The VsDrvr package provides for automatic re-try of commands up to 3 times, in the event that communications are garbled, and will wait up to 2 seconds for completion of serial commands. The number of retries can be set from 0 to 10, and the latency adjusted, if desired. However, there should be no need to do so. The hardware and software have been tested and observed to execute several million commands without a single communications error, so in practice the need for the retry protocol is very slight. Communication speed is not improved by reducing the latency, since commands proceed when all characters are received, and the latency time to time-out is only relevent when there is a communications lapse ?and as noted, these are very unlikely so the performance burden of retries should not be a practical consideration. Multiple Filters and Multiple Processes These routines only permit one VariSpec per process, and one process per VariSpec. So, these routines cannot control multiple filters at once from a single process; nor can several active processes seek to control the same filter at the same time. The VsDrvr package anticipates a future upgrade to enable control of multiple filters per process, so it makes use of an integer handle to identify which VariSpec is being controlled, even though (for now) only a single filter can be active. This handle is checked, and the correct handle must be used in all calls. Program flow and sequence Typical programs should use the following API calls (all applications, upon initiating link to the filter) ?call VsOpen() to establish communications link (required) ?call VsIsPresent() to confirm a filter is actually present ?call VsIsReady() in case filter is still doing power-up sequence ?call VsGetFilterIdentity() to learn wavelength limits and serial number if needed (if setting wavelengths via implicit palettes; recommended especially with older filters) ?call VsEnableImplicitPalettes() ? (to set wavelengths, either directly or via implicit palettes) ?call VsSetWavelength() and VsGetWavelength() to select and retrieve tuning (if setting wavelengths by means of palettes, and managing palettes explicity) ?call VsDefinePaletteEntry() and VsClearPalette() to define palette entries ?call VsSetPalette() and VsGetPalette() to select and retrieve palette state (all applications, when done with the filter) ?call VsClose() to release the communications link (required) Sample program Source code for a sample program, VsGui, is provided, which illustrates how to control a VariSpec filter using the VsDrvr package. All filter control code lives in the VsGuiDlg.cpp module, specifically in the Connect(), RequestToSetWavelength(), and VsWriteTimerProc() functions. The latter two use a system timer to decouple the GUI from the actual filter control, for more responsive feedback to the user. Such an approach is unnecessary if palettes are used, which is preferable when one wishes the best real-time performance. See the VariSpec manual for further information. Auxiliary commands Certain commands are normally only used at the factory when filters are being built and configured, or in specialized configurations. These appear after the normal command set in the listing below. Obsolescent commands The VsConnect(), VsIsConnected(), and VsDisconnect() functions are obsolescent. They are supported in this release, but will not necessarily exist in releases after 1.3x. As they are obsolescent, they are not recommended for new code. These function calls are not documented further in this manual.Summary of commands Normal Commands VsClearError(vsHnd) VsClearPalette(vsHnd) VsClearPendingCommands(vsHnd) VsClose(vsHnd) VsDefinePalette(vsHnd, palEntry, wl) VsEnableImplicitPalette(vsHnd, isEnabled) VsGetError(vsHnd, *pErr) VsGetFilterIdentity(vsHnd, *pVer, *pSerno, *pminWl, *pmaxWl) VsGetMode(vsHnd, int *pMode) VsGetPalette(vsHnd, *ppalEntryNo) VsGetSettleMs(vsHnd, *psettleMs) VsGetTemperature(vsHnd, *pTemperature) VsGetWavelength(vsHnd, *pwl) VsGetWavelengthAndWaves(vsHnd, double *pWl, double *pwaves) VsGetWaveplateLimits(vsHnd, double *pminWaves, double *pmaxWaves) VsGetWaveplateStages(vsHnd, int *pnStages) VsIsPresent(vsHnd) VsIsReady(vsHnd) VsOpen(*pvsHnd, portName, *pErrorCode) VsSetLatencyMs(vsHnd, nLatencyMs) VsSetMode(vsHnd, mode) VsSetPalette(vsHnd, palEntry) VsSetRetries(vsHnd, nRetries) VsSetWavelength(vsHnd, wl, confirm) VsSetWavelengthAndWaves(vsHnd, wl, waveplateVector) Auxiliary commands VsGetAllDrive(vsHnd, *pStages, drive[]) VsGetNstages(vsHnd, *pStages) VsGetPendingReply(vsHnd, reply, nChars, *pQuit, firstMs, subsequentMs) VsGetReply(vsHnd, reply, nChars, waitMs) VsIsDiagnostic(vsHnd) VsIsEngagedInBeam(vsHnd) VsSendBinary(vsHnd, bin[], nChars, clearEcho) VsSendCommand(vsHnd, cmd, sendEolChar) VsSetStageDrive(vsHnd, stage, drive) VsThermistorCounts(vsHnd, *pCounts) Alphabetical list of function calls Syntax Throughout this manual, the following conventions are used: VSDRVR_API Int32 VsOpen( VS_HANDLE *vsHnd, LPCSTR port, Int32 *pErrorCode ) Bold text is used for function names Italics indicate variables whose names (or values) are supplied by the user in their code Name-mangling The declaration file vsdrvr.h includes statements that render the API names accurately in a C++ environment, i.e. free of the name-mangling decoration suffix that is normally added by C++ compilers. Thus the functions can be called freely from either C or C++ programs, using the names exactly as shown in this manual or in the VsDrvr.h file. Call and argument declarations The call protocol type, VSDRVR_API, is declared in vsdrvr.h, as are the types Int32 and VS_HANDLE. Errors All functions return an Int32 status value, which is TRUE if the routine completed successfully and FALSE if there was an error. If there is an error in the VsOpen() function, the error is returned in *pErrorCode. If there is an error in communicating with a filter after a successful VsOpen(), one should use the VsGetError() function to obtain the specific error code involved. This function returns VSD_ERR_NOERROR if there is no error pending. Main and auxiliary functions The next section provides a description of the main functions, in alphabetic order; followed by the auxiliary functions, also in alphabetical order. In normal use, one will probably have no need for the auxiliary functions, but this list is provided for completeness. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsClearError( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Purpose: this function clears any pending error on the VariSpec. This resets the error LED on the filter, and sets the pending error to VS_ERR_NOERROR. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsClearPalette( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: clears all elements of the current filter palette and renders the current palette element undefined. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsClearPendingCommands( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: clears all pending commands including any presently in-process Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsClose( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen(). May also be NULL, in which case all VariSpec filters are disconnected. Function: Disconnects the filter. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: No other functions will work until VsOpen() is called to re-establish communications with the filter. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsDefinePalette( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 palEntry, double wl) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() palEntry palette entry to be defined, in the range [0, 127] wl wavelength associated with this palette entry Function: creates a palette entry for the entry and wavelength specified. This palette entry can then be accessed using VsSetPalette() and VsGetPalette() functions. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: palettes provide a fast way to define filter settings for wavelengths that are to be repeatedly accessed. The calculations are performed once, at the time the palette element is defined, and the results are saved in a palette table to tune to that wavelength without repeating the underlying calculations. And, one may cycle through the palette table, once defined, by means of TTL a trigger signal to the filter electronics. For more information about using palettes, consult the VariSpec user抯 manual. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsEnableImplicitPalette( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, BOOL imlEnabled) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() implEnabled selects whether to use implicit palette definition Function: enables or disables implicit palette generation when wavelengths are defined using the VsSetWavelength function. If enabled, a new palette entry is created whenever a new wavelength is accessed, and the VsSetWavelength function will use this palette entry whenever that wavelength is accessed again, until the palette is cleared. The result is improved tuning speed; however, it means that the palette contents are altered dynamically, which can be a problem if one relies upon the palette contents remaining fixed. Clearing the palette with VsClearPalette() will clear all implicit palette entries as well as explicitly defined palette entries. This is useful if one knows that wavelengths used previously will not be used again, or that a new set of wavelengths is about to be defined and one wishes to make sure there is sufficient room in the palette. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: By default, the implicit palette is enabled for VariSpec filters that have RS-232 interface, and is disabled for newer VariSpec filters that have the USB interface. This is because the newer filters perform the filter tuning calculations fast enough that no performance improvement is obtained by using the implicit palette to set wavelength. For more information about using palettes, consult the VariSpec user抯 manual. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetError( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pErr) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pErr pointer to the int that will receive the most recent error code Purpose: this function clears any pending error on the VariSpec. This resets the error LED on the filter, and sets the pending error to VS_ERR_NOERROR. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetFilterIdentity( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pVer, Int32 *pSerno, double *pminWl, double *pmaxWl ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pVer pointer to variable that receives the filter firmware version pSerno pointer to variable that receives the filter serial number pminWl pointer to variable that receives the filter抯 minimum wavelength pmaxWl pointer to variable that receives the filter抯 maximum wavelength Purpose: this function reads the filter抯 information using the VariSpec 慥?command, and puts it to the call variables. Any one of the pointers may be NULL, in which case that piece of information is not returned. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetMode( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pMode ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pMode pointer to variable that receives the filter mode Purpose: this function enables one to read the filter抯 present mode. The mode describes how the filter responds to hardware triggers, and is described in the filter manual. If the pointer *pMode is NULL, no information is returned. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetPalette( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *ppalEntry ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() ppalEntry pointer to int that receives the 0-based palette entry number. This pointer may not be NULL. Purpose: this function determines what palette entry is currently active and returns it to *ppalEntry. If the present palette entry is undefined, it sets *ppalEntry to ? and returns a successful status code. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetSettleMs( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pSettleMs ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pSettleMs pointer to variable that receives the filter settling time Purpose: this function returns the filter抯 settling time, in milliseconds. This is useful for establishing overall system timing. The settling time is defined as beginning at the moment that the electronics have processed the request to change wavelength, as determined by VsIsReady() or equivalent. At that moment, the new set of drive signals are applied to the optics, and the optics will settle in *psettleMs milliseconds. The settling time is defined as a 95% settling time, meaning the filter has settled to 95% of its ultimate transmission value at the new wavelength being tuned to. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetTemperature( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, double *pTemperature ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pTemperature pointer to double that will receive the filter temperature, in C This pointer may not be NULL Purpose: this function determines the filter temperature using the VariSpec 慪?command, and puts the result to *pTemperature. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetWavelength( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, double *pwl ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pwl pointer to double that will receive the filter wavelength, in nm This pointer may not be NULL Purpose: this function determines the current filter wavelength and returns it to *pwl. If the present wavelength is undefined, it sets *pwl to ? and returns a successful status code. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetWavelengthAndWaves( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, double *pwl, double *pwaves ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pwl pointer to double that will receive the filter wavelength, in nm. This pointer may not be NULL pwaves pointer to double array that will receive one or more waveplate settings. The actual number of settings may be determined by VsGetWaveplateStages(). Purpose: this function determines the current filter wavelength and returns it to *pwl. If the present wavelength is undefined, it sets *pwl to ? and returns a successful status code. If the present wavelength is defined, it also returns the waves of retardance at each of the polarization analysis waveplates in the optics, in the pwaves[] array. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: See the description of the VsGetWaveplateStages() command for more detail on what stages are considered waveplates. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetWaveplateLimits( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, double *pminWaves, double *pmaxWaves ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pminWaves pointer to double array that will receive the minimum retardances possible at each of the waveplate stages in the filter optics. pmaxWaves pointer to double array that will receive the maximum retardances possible at each of the waveplate stages in the filter optics Purpose: this function determines the range of retardances that are possible at each waveplate stage, in waves, at the present wavelength setting. Note that the retardance range is itself a function of wavelength, so the results will vary as the wavelength is changed. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: See the description of the VsGetWaveplateStages command for more detail on what stages are considered waveplates. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetWaveplateStages( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pnwpStages ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pnwpStages pointer to Int32 that will receive the number of waveplate stages in the filter optics. This pointer may not be NULL Purpose: this function determines how many polarization analysis stages are present in the optics and returns this number. Note that although all VariSpec filters operate by means of variable retarder element, optical stages that perform wavelength tuning rather than polarization analysis are not treated as waveplate stages. For example, most VariSpec filters do not include any polarization analysis stages and thus report no waveplates. VsGetWaveplateStages will return a value of 2 for conventional PolScope optics. In contrast, VsGetNstages() reports the total number of stages in a filter, including stages that perform polarization analysis and stages that perform wavelength tuning. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsIsPresent( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: determines whether a filter is actually present and responding. This is done using the status-check character ??as described in the VariSpec manual. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsIsReady( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: determines whether the filter is done processing all commands, and is ready to receive new commands. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: this is useful when sending commands such as VsSetWavelength(), VsInitialize(), VsExercise(), and VsDefinePaletteEntry() in asynchronous mode. These commands take a prolonged time, and running them synchronously ties up the processor waiting. Alternatively, one can create a loop that uses CreateWaitableTimer(), SetWaitableTimer(), and WaitForSingleObject() to call VsIsReady() at intervals, checking whether the filter is ready. This approach, though more work for the programmer, leaves most of the processor capacity free for other tasks such as GUI update and the like. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsOpen (VS_HANDLE *pvsHnd, LPCSTR port, Int32 *pErrorCode ) Arguments: pvsHnd pointer to handle. This pointer may not be NULL. port port name, such as 揅OM1? pErrorCode pointer to Int32 to receive an error code if VsOpen() fails Purpose: establishes a connection to the VariSpec using the port specified, and automatically determines the baud rate and end-of-line character for subsequent communications. It also retrieves the filter抯 serial number and wavelength range, to confirm that it is a VariSpec and not some other similar device. However, these are retrieved purely as an integrity check, and the values are not returned to the calling application. See VsGetFilterInfo() to access this information. If the device responds as a VariSpec does when it is not ready (i.e. still initializing), VsOpen() fails and returns the error code VSD_ERR_BUSY. However, one may not be sure that the device is a VariSpec until VsOpen() completes successfully The error codes returned by this function are listed in VsDrvr.h. When VsOpen() runs successfully, *pErrorCode is set to VSD_ERR_NOERROR. The handle associated with this filter is set by VsOpen() to a nonzero handle value if successful, or to NULL if no connection is established. The port may refer to COM1 through COM8. Return: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: Until this function is called, none of the other functions will work. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSetLatency( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 latencyMs ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() latencyMs the serial port latency, in ms, in the range [1, 5000] Purpose: this function sets the latency time for USB or RS-232 commands to the value given by latencyMs. Commands that do not conclude in this time are considered to have timed-out. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: increasing the latency time does not increase the time for commands to complete, nor does it insert any delays in normal processing. It merely defines the window for maximum transmission time, beyond which time an error is reported. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSetPalette( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 palEntry ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() palEntry the palette entry to be set, in the range [0, 127] Purpose: this function sets the filter to the palette entry specified by palEntry Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: palettes are a good way to control the filter in applications where it will be cycled repeatedly to various, fixed wavelength settings. Palettes calculate the filter settings once, and save the results for rapid access later, rather than calculating them each time, as occurs when one sets the wavelength directly with VsSetWavelength(). See the VariSpec manual for more information on palettes.VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSetRetries( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 nRetries ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() nRetries the number serial communications retries, in the range [0, 10] Purpose: The VsDrvr software automatically detects errors in communication and re-sends if an error is detected. This function sets the number of times to retry sending any single command, before reporting a communications failure. The default is 3, which should be adequate, and one should rarely need to change this, if ever. The primary purpose of this function is to enable setting the number of retries to zero, to force single-error events to cause detectable errors (as they would normally be fixed automatically via the retry mechanism) Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsSetWavelength( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, double wl, BOOL confirm ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() wl wavelength to tune to, in nm confirm logical flag, indicating whether to confirm actual wavelength value Purpose: this function sets the filter wavelength to the value in wl. If confirm is TRUE, it waits for the filter to complete the command, and then reads back the actual wavelength to confirm it was implemented successfully. Note that the only time there can be a disparity is when the wavelength requested by wl lies outside the legal range for that filter, or if the wavelength is specified to a finer resolution than the filter recognizes (normally, 0.01 nm). Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetAllDrive( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pStages, Int32 drive[] ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pStages pointer to int that will receive the number of stages in the filter drive[] int array to receive the filter drive levels. Purpose: this function reports the number of filter stages in *pStages. If this argument is NULL, it is ignored. The function returns the actual drive level at each stage, in counts, in drive[] , which must not be NULL. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: The array drive[] must be large enough to receive all the drive levels ?if the exact number of stages is not known, call VsGetNstages() first, or allocate enough array elements (12) to accommodate the largest filter design.VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetNstages( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pStages ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pStages pointer to int that will receive the number of stages in the filter Purpose: this function determines the number of optical stages in the filter and returns it in *pStages, which may not be NULL. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetPendingReply( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, LPSTR reply, Int32 nChars, Int32 *pQuit, Int32 firstMs, Int32 subsequentMs ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() reply pointer to buffer that is to receive the reply nChars number of characters to receive pQuit pointer to flag to control this function ?see Notes below firstMs maximum time to wait, in ms, for first character of reply subsequentMs maximum time to wait, in ms, for each subsequent character Purpose: this function is used to exploit some of the less-common aspects of the filter, and it is likely that most programs will require its use. It receives a reply from the filter that may not arrive for a long time. The routine waits up to firstMs for the first character to arrive. Subsequent characters must arrive within subsequentMs of one another. Typically, this routine is called with a high value for firstMs and a lower value for subsequentMs. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: pQuit can be used to cancel this function while it is waiting for the reply, if that is desired, such as to respond to a user cancellation request. To use this feature, pQuit must be non-NULL and *pQuit must be FALSE at the time VsGetPendingReply() is called. VsGetPendingReply() checks this address periodically, and if it discovers that *pQuit is TRUE, it will cancel and return immediately.VSDRVR_API Int32 VsGetReply( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, LPSTR reply, Int32 nChars, Int32 waitMs ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() reply pointer to buffer that will receive the filter reply nChars the number of characters sought waitMs the maximum time, in ms, to wait for the reply Purpose: this function is used to exploit those filter commands that are not directly provided by other functions, and most programmers will not need to use it. If the reply is not received in the time indicated by waitMs, or if less than nChars are received, the function returns with an unsuccessful status code. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: noneVSDRVR_API Int32 VsIsDiagnostic( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: determines whether the filter is in the diagnostic mode that is used at the factory for setup and calibration. This command is reserved for CRI use only. Returns: TRUE if diagnostic, FALSE otherwise. VSDRVR_API Int32 VsIsEngagedInBeam( VS_HANDLE vsHnd ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() Function: determines whether the filter is engaged in the beam, when configured into certain CRI systems. This function is reserved for CRI use only Returns: TRUE if engaged in the beam, FALSE otherwise VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSendBinary( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, char *bin, Int32 nChars, BOOL clearEcho ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() bin pointer a buffer that contains binary data to be sent to the filter nChars the number of binary characters to be sent clearEcho flag indicating whether to clear echo characters from the queue Purpose: this routine sends binary blocks of data to the filter. This is only necessary when programming calibration data to the filter, and it is not anticipated that this function will be necessary in any normal use. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSendCommand( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, LPCSTR cmd, BOOL sendEolChar) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() cmd pointer to the command to be sent to the filter sendEolChar flag indicating whether to append the end-of-line character or not Purpose: this function sends the command in cmd to the filter, and appends an end-of-line terminator (or not) based on sendEolChar. It automatically retrieves and discards the character echo of this command by the VariSpec. It does not automatically retrieve the reply, if any, from the VariSpec. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: The parameter sendEolChar should normally be true in all cases, unless one is sending individual character commands such as the ??or 慇?commands described in the VariSpec user抯 manual.VSDRVR_API Int32 VsSetStageDrive( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 stage, Int32 drive ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() stage stage number whose drive level is to be adjusted drive drive level, in counts, for that stage Purpose: this function provides a way to manually adjust the drive levels at each of the filter抯 optical stages. It is normally used only during manufacture, and is not a function that most software programs will have any reason to use. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none VSDRVR_API Int32 VsThermistorCounts( VS_HANDLE vsHnd, Int32 *pCounts ) Arguments: vsHnd handle value returned by VsOpen() pCounts pointer to int that will receive the thermistor signal, in counts Purpose: this function provides a way to determine the signal level, in counts, at the thermistor. It is normally used only during manufacture, and is not a function that most software programs will have any reason to use. Returns: TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise Notes: none
连接数据库代码实例 1,连接数据库代码 文件名称 conn.asp 所有访问数据库的文件都调用此文件 <% db=\"data/data.mdb\" \'数据库存放目录 on error resume next set conn=server.createobject(\"adodb.connection\") conn.open \"driver={microsoft access driver (*.mdb)};dbq=\"&server.mappath(db) if err then err.clear set conn = Nothing response.write \"数据库连接出错,请检查conn.asp中的连接字符串。\" response.end end if function CloseDB Conn.Close set Conn=Nothing End Function %> <% dim badword badword=\"\'|and|select|update|chr|delete|%20from|;|insert|mid|master.|set|chr(37)|=\" if request.QueryString<>\"\" then chk=split(badword,\"|\") for each query_name in request.querystring for i=0 to ubound(chk) if instr(lcase(request.querystring(query_name)),chk(i))<>0 then response.write \"\" response.end end if next next end if %> ---------------------------------------------- 2。增加纪录 <% if request(\"action\")=\"add\" then name=request.form(\"name\") content=request.form(\"content\") set rs=server.createobject(\"adodb.recordset\") sql=\"select * from biao\" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 rs.addnew rs(\"name\")=name if content<>\"\" then rs(\"content\")=content else rs(\"content\")=null end if rs(\"date\")=date() rs.update rs.close set rs=nothing response.write \"\" end if %> -------------------------------------- 3.显示记录 <% set rs=server.createobject(\"adodb.recordset\") sql=\"select * from biao order by id desc\" \'sql=\"select top 10 * from biao order by id desc\" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 rs.pagesize=15 \'-------设置每页显示的记录数 dim page page=request(\"page\") if page<>\"\" and IsNumeric(page) then page=clng(page) else page=1 end if n=rs.pagecount if page>n then page=clng(n) end if if rs.eof then response.write\"暂没有信息!\" \'response.end else rs.absolutepage=page end if i=0 do while not rs.eof and i --------如果是每行显示n个纪录开始---------------------------- <% do while not rs.eof and i\" end if %> --------如果是每行显示n个纪录结束----------------------------- <%=rs(\"id\")%> <% rs.movenext i=i+1 loop %> <% response.write(\"共\"&rs.recordcount&\"条信息   \") if page<>1 then response.write(\"首页 \") else response.write(\"首页 \") end if if page>1 then response.write(\"上一页 \") else response.write(\"上一页 \") end if if page下一页 \") else response.write(\"下一页 \") end if if page<>n then response.write(\"尾页 \") else response.write(\"尾页 \") end if response.write(\"   当前页:\"&page&\"/\"&n&\"\") %> 转到:<select name=\"select\" onChange=\'javascript:window.open(this.options[this.selectedIndex].value,\"_top\")\'> <%for p=1 to rs.pagecount%> <%next%> ---------------------------------------------- 4。更新纪录,删除纪录,删除所有记录 <% if request(\"action\")=\"manage\" then call manage() end if if request(\"action\")=\"edit\" then id=request(\"id\") set rs=server.createobject(\"adodb.recordset\") sql=\"select * from biao where id=\"&id&\"\" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 call edit() end if if request(\"action\")=\"del\" then conn.execute(\"delete * from biao where id=\"&request(\"id\")&\"\") conn.close response.write\"\" end if if request(\"action\")=\"delall\" then conn.execute(\"delete * from biao\") conn.close response.write\"\" end if if request(\"action\")=\"saveedit\" then name=request.form(\"name\") hits=request.form(\"hits\") content=request.form(\"content\") set rs=server.createobject(\"adodb.recordset\") sql=\"select * from biao where id=\"&request(\"id\")&\"\" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 rs(\"name\")=name rs(\"content\")=content rs(\"hits\")=hits rs.update conn.close set rs=nothing response.write \"\" end if %> --------------------------------- 5。查询纪录
<select name="select" size="1"> select>
------search.asp--------------- <% if request("keyword")<>"" and request("select")<>"" then sql="select * from biao where "&request("select")&" like '%"&request("keyword")&"%'" elseif request("keyword")<>"" and request("select")="all" then sql="select * from biao where name like '%"&request("keyword")&"%' or id like '%"&request("keyword")&"%' or content like '%"&request("keyword")&"%'" else response.redirect("index.asp") end if set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") rs.open sql,conn,1,1 rs.pagesize=15 '-------设置每页显示的记录数 dim page page=request("page") if page<>"" and IsNumeric(page) then page=clng(page) else page=1 end if n=rs.pagecount if page>n then page=clng(n) end if if rs.eof then response.write"查询的信息不存在或者已经删除!" 'response.end else rs.absolutepage=page end if i=0 do while not rs.eof and i <%=rs("id")%> <% rs.movenext i=i+1 loop %> ----------------------------------------- 6.有分类的纪录代码 ---------------显示分类开始--------------------------------- <% set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select all * from class order by id desc" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 do while not rs.eof %> "><%=rs("classname")%> <% rs.movenext i=i+1 loop %> ---------------显示分类结束-------------------------- -------------显示现在所在分类开始------------------- <% set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select top 1 * from class where classname='"&request("classname")&"'" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 do while not rs.eof %> <%=rs("classname")%> <% rs.movenext i=i+1 loop %> -----------显示现在所在分类结束---------------------- -----------显示此分类的纪录开始------------ <% set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao where fenlei='"&request("classname")&"'" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 rs.pagesize=10 '-------设置每页显示的记录数 dim page page=request("page") if page<>"" and IsNumeric(page) then page=clng(page) else page=1 end if n=rs.pagecount if page>n then page=clng(n) end if if rs.bof or rs.eof then response.write"暂没有任何数据!" 'response.end else rs.absolutepage=page end if i=0 do while not rs.eof and i <%=rs("id")%> <% rs.movenext i=i+1 loop %> --------------显示此分类的纪录结束---------------- ---------删除所在分类纪录开始------------ <% if request("classname")<>"" then%> " title="删除所有本类信息?" onClick="{if (confirm('您确定要删除所有信息吗?')){return true;}return false;}">清空所有本类信息 <%end if%> if request("action")="del_fenlei" then classname=request("classname") conn.execute("delete * from biao where fenlei='"&classname&"'") CloseDB response.write"" end if ---------删除所在分类纪录结束-------------------------------- ------------------------------- 7。上传文件或者图片 删除文件代码 (请在同一目录建立文件夹upfile/softpic) 上传文件的页面(调用upsoftpic.asp)
upsoftpic.asp
upfile.asp <%@LANGUAGE="VBSCRIPT" CODEPAGE="936"%> <%Server.ScriptTimeout=999%> <% if request("action")="upsoftpic" then set upload=new upload_5xsoft set file=upload.file("softpic") fileExt=lcase(right(file.filename,4)) if fileEXT<>".jpg" and fileEXT<>".gif" and fileEXT<>".rar" then '---设置上传类型 ++++fileEXT<>".***"++++++++ response.write"" response.end end if if file.fileSize>0 then formPath="upfile/softpic" '-------上传路径 'formPath="../upfile/softpic" if right(formPath,1)<>"/" then formPath=formPath&"/" end if vfname = filename(now()) fname = vfname & "." & GetExtendName(file.FileName) file.SaveAs Server.mappath(formPath&fname) ''保存文件 %> <% '------文件名 end if set file=nothing set upload=nothing function filename(fname) fname = now() fname = replace(fname,"-","") fname = replace(fname," ","") fname = replace(fname,":","") fname = replace(fname,"PM","") fname = replace(fname,"AM","") fname = replace(fname,"上午","") fname = replace(fname,"下午","") filename=fname end function function GetExtendName(FileName) dim ExtName ExtName = LCase(FileName) ExtName = right(ExtName,3) ExtName = right(ExtName,3-Instr(ExtName,".")) GetExtendName = ExtName end function end if %> upload.asp 删除文件和记录 <% if request("action")="manage" then call manage() end if if request("action")="edit" then id=request("id") set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao where id="&id&"" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 call edit() end if if request("action")="del" then set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao where id="&request("id")&"" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 set fileobj=server.createobject("scripting.filesystemobject") if fileobj.FileExists(server.mappath(""&rs("picurl"))) then fileobj.DeleteFile server.mappath(""&rs("picurl")) end if rs.delete conn.close response.write"" end if if request("action")="delall" then set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 set fileobj=server.createobject("scripting.filesystemobject") i=0 do while not(rs.bof or rs.eof) and ialert('所有已成功删除!');location.href('?action=manage');" end if if request("action")="saveedit" then name=request.form("name") picurl=request.form("picurl") hits=request.form("hits") content=request.form("content") set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao where id="&request("id")&"" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 rs("name")=name rs("content")=content rs("picurl")=picurl rs("hits")=hits rs.update conn.close set rs=nothing response.write "" end if %> 删除文件 &struploadfiles=<%=rs("picurl")%>&action=delsoftpic" onClick="{if (confirm('您确定要删除这个吗?')){return true;}return false;}">删除 -------------------------------- --*delfile.asp内容*--- <%if request("action")="delsoftpic" then picurl=request.form("picurl") set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from biao where id="&request("id")&"" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 rs("picurl")=null struploadfiles=trim(request.querystring("struploadfiles")) action=trim(request.querystring("action")) dim fso,arruploadfiles,i set fso = createobject("scripting.filesystemobject") fso.deletefile(server.mappath("" & struploadfiles)) set fso = nothing rs.update conn.close set rs=nothing response.write"" end if %> [返回] 8。有关ubb ----------ubbcode.asp-------------- <% const ImagePath="images/emot/" function UBBCode(strContent) strContent= FilterJS(strContent) dim re dim po,ii dim reContent Set re=new RegExp re.IgnoreCase =true re.Global=True po=0 ii=0 re.Pattern="[UPLOAD=(gif|jpg|jpeg|bmp|png)](.[^[]*)(gif|jpg|jpeg|bmp)[/UPLOAD]" strContent=re.replace(strContent,"
此主题相关图片如下:
转动滚轮可缩放图片") re.Pattern="[IMG](http|https|ftp)://(.[^[]*)[/IMG]" strContent=re.replace(strContent,"转动滚轮可缩放图片;按此在新窗口浏览图片") re.Pattern="[DIR=*([0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/DIR]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"") re.Pattern="[QT=*([0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/QT]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"") re.Pattern="[MP=*([0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/MP]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"") re.Pattern="[RM=*([0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/RM]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"
") re.Pattern="([FLASH])(.[^[]*)([/FLASH])" strContent= re.Replace(strContent,"点击开新窗口欣赏该FLASH动画![全屏欣赏]
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$4") re.Pattern="([URL])(.[^[]*)([/URL])" strContent= re.Replace(strContent,"$2") re.Pattern="([URL=(.[^[]*)])(.[^[]*)([/URL])" strContent= re.Replace(strContent,"$3") re.Pattern="([EMAIL])(S+@.[^[]*)([/EMAIL])" strContent= re.Replace(strContent,"$2") re.Pattern="([EMAIL=(S+@.[^[]*)])(.[^[]*)([/EMAIL])" strContent= re.Replace(strContent,"$3") '自动识别网址 're.Pattern = "^((http|https|ftp|rtsp|mms):(//|\\)[A-Za-z0-9./=?%-&_~`@':+!]+)" 'strContent = re.Replace(strContent,"$1") 're.Pattern = "((http|https|ftp|rtsp|mms):(//|\\)[A-Za-z0-9./=?%-&_~`@':+!]+)$" 'strContent = re.Replace(strContent,"$1") 're.Pattern = "([^>=""])((http|https|ftp|rtsp|mms):(//|\\)[A-Za-z0-9./=?%-&_~`@':+!]+)" 'strContent = re.Replace(strContent,"$1$2") '自动识别www等开头的网址 're.Pattern = "([^(http://|http:\)])((www|cn)[.](w)+[.]{1,}(net|com|cn|org|cc)(((/[~]*|\[~]*)(w)+)|[.](w)+)*(((([?](w)+){1}[=]*))*((w)+){1}([&](w)+[=](w)+)*)*)" 'strContent = re.Replace(strContent,"$2") '自动识别Email地址,如打开本功能在浏览内容很多的帖子会引起服务器停顿 're.Pattern = "([^(=)])((w)+[@]{1}((w)+[.]){1,3}(w)+)" 'strContent = re.Replace(strContent,"$2") re.Pattern="[em(.[^[]*)]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"") re.Pattern="[HTML](.[^[]*)[/HTML]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"
以下内容为程序代码:
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") re.Pattern="[fly](.*)[/fly]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$1") re.Pattern="[move](.*)[/move]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$1") re.Pattern="[GLOW=*([0-9]*),*(#*[a-z0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/GLOW]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$4
") re.Pattern="[SHADOW=*([0-9]*),*(#*[a-z0-9]*),*([0-9]*)](.[^[]*)[/SHADOW]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$4
") re.Pattern="[i](.[^[]*)[/i]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$1") re.Pattern="[u](.[^[]*)([/u])" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$1") re.Pattern="[b](.[^[]*)([/b])" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$1") re.Pattern="[size=([1-4])](.[^[]*)[/size]" strContent=re.Replace(strContent,"$2") strContent=replace(strContent,"","") set re=Nothing UBBCode=strContent end function Function FilterJS(v) if not isnull(v) then dim t dim re dim reContent Set re=new RegExp re.IgnoreCase =true re.Global=True re.Pattern="(javascript)" t=re.Replace(v,"javascript") re.Pattern="(jscript:)" t=re.Replace(t,"jscript:") re.Pattern="(js:)" t=re.Replace(t,"js:") 're.Pattern="(value)" 't=re.Replace(t,"value") re.Pattern="(about:)" t=re.Replace(t,"about:") re.Pattern="(file:)" t=re.Replace(t,"file:") re.Pattern="(document.cookie)" t=re.Replace(t,"documents.cookie") re.Pattern="(vbscript:)" t=re.Replace(t,"vbscript:") re.Pattern="(vbs:)" t=re.Replace(t,"vbs:") re.Pattern="(on(mouse|exit|error|click|key))" t=re.Replace(t,"on$2") 're.Pattern="(&#)" 't=re.Replace(t,"&#") FilterJS=t set re=nothing end if End Function function HTMLEncode(fString) if not isnull(fString) then fString = replace(fString, ">", ">") fString = replace(fString, "<", "<") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(32), " ") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(9), " ") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(34), """) fString = Replace(fString, CHR(39), "'") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(13), "") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(10) & CHR(10), "

") fString = Replace(fString, CHR(10), "
") HTMLEncode = fString end if end function function nohtml(str) dim re Set re=new RegExp re.IgnoreCase =true re.Global=True re.Pattern="(<.[^<]*>)" str=re.replace(str," ") re.Pattern="()" str=re.replace(str," ") nohtml=str set re=nothing end function function cutStr(str,strlen) dim l,t,c l=len(str) t=0 for i=1 to l c=Abs(Asc(Mid(str,i,1))) if c>255 then t=t+2 else t=t+1 end if if t>=strlen then cutStr=left(str,i)&".." exit for else cutStr=str end if next cutStr=replace(cutStr,chr(10),"") end function %> '----------ubbcode.asp结束----------------------------- <%=left(rs("name"),6)%> <%=ubbcode(rs("content"))%> <%=Server.HTMLEncode(rs("content"))%> ----------------------字符截取开始------------------------------- <% if len(rs("name"))>10 then response.write ""&left(rs("name"),10)&".." else response.write ""&rs("name")&"" end if %> ----------------------字符截取结束--------------------------------- 9。有关后台登陆 chk.asp <% if session("admin")="" then response.redirect"index.asp" end if %> md5.asp <% Private Const BITS_TO_A_BYTE = 8 Private Const BYTES_TO_A_WORD = 4 Private Const BITS_TO_A_WORD = 32 Private m_lOnBits(30) Private m_l2Power(30) Private Function LShift(lValue, iShiftBits) If iShiftBits = 0 Then LShift = lValue Exit Function ElseIf iShiftBits = 31 Then If lValue And 1 Then LShift = &H80000000 Else LShift = 0 End If Exit Function ElseIf iShiftBits < 0 Or iShiftBits > 31 Then Err.Raise 6 End If If (lValue And m_l2Power(31 - iShiftBits)) Then LShift = ((lValue And m_lOnBits(31 - (iShiftBits + 1))) * m_l2Power(iShiftBits)) Or &H80000000 Else LShift = ((lValue And m_lOnBits(31 - iShiftBits)) * m_l2Power(iShiftBits)) End If End Function Private Function RShift(lValue, iShiftBits) If iShiftBits = 0 Then RShift = lValue Exit Function ElseIf iShiftBits = 31 Then If lValue And &H80000000 Then RShift = 1 Else RShift = 0 End If Exit Function ElseIf iShiftBits < 0 Or iShiftBits > 31 Then Err.Raise 6 End If RShift = (lValue And &H7FFFFFFE) m_l2Power(iShiftBits) If (lValue And &H80000000) Then RShift = (RShift Or (&H40000000 m_l2Power(iShiftBits - 1))) End If End Function Private Function RotateLeft(lValue, iShiftBits) RotateLeft = LShift(lValue, iShiftBits) Or RShift(lValue, (32 - iShiftBits)) End Function Private Function AddUnsigned(lX, lY) Dim lX4 Dim lY4 Dim lX8 Dim lY8 Dim lResult lX8 = lX And &H80000000 lY8 = lY And &H80000000 lX4 = lX And &H40000000 lY4 = lY And &H40000000 lResult = (lX And &H3FFFFFFF) + (lY And &H3FFFFFFF) If lX4 And lY4 Then lResult = lResult Xor &H80000000 Xor lX8 Xor lY8 ElseIf lX4 Or lY4 Then If lResult And &H40000000 Then lResult = lResult Xor &HC0000000 Xor lX8 Xor lY8 Else lResult = lResult Xor &H40000000 Xor lX8 Xor lY8 End If Else lResult = lResult Xor lX8 Xor lY8 End If AddUnsigned = lResult End Function Private Function md5_F(x, y, z) md5_F = (x And y) Or ((Not x) And z) End Function Private Function md5_G(x, y, z) md5_G = (x And z) Or (y And (Not z)) End Function Private Function md5_H(x, y, z) md5_H = (x Xor y Xor z) End Function Private Function md5_I(x, y, z) md5_I = (y Xor (x Or (Not z))) End Function Private Sub md5_FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) a = AddUnsigned(a, AddUnsigned(AddUnsigned(md5_F(b, c, d), x), ac)) a = RotateLeft(a, s) a = AddUnsigned(a, b) End Sub Private Sub md5_GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) a = AddUnsigned(a, AddUnsigned(AddUnsigned(md5_G(b, c, d), x), ac)) a = RotateLeft(a, s) a = AddUnsigned(a, b) End Sub Private Sub md5_HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) a = AddUnsigned(a, AddUnsigned(AddUnsigned(md5_H(b, c, d), x), ac)) a = RotateLeft(a, s) a = AddUnsigned(a, b) End Sub Private Sub md5_II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) a = AddUnsigned(a, AddUnsigned(AddUnsigned(md5_I(b, c, d), x), ac)) a = RotateLeft(a, s) a = AddUnsigned(a, b) End Sub Private Function ConvertToWordArray(sMessage) Dim lMessageLength Dim lNumberOfWords Dim lWordArray() Dim lBytePosition Dim lByteCount Dim lWordCount Const MODULUS_BITS = 512 Const CONGRUENT_BITS = 448 lMessageLength = Len(sMessage) lNumberOfWords = (((lMessageLength + ((MODULUS_BITS - CONGRUENT_BITS) BITS_TO_A_BYTE)) (MODULUS_BITS BITS_TO_A_BYTE)) + 1) * (MODULUS_BITS BITS_TO_A_WORD) ReDim lWordArray(lNumberOfWords - 1) lBytePosition = 0 lByteCount = 0 Do Until lByteCount >= lMessageLength lWordCount = lByteCount BYTES_TO_A_WORD lBytePosition = (lByteCount Mod BYTES_TO_A_WORD) * BITS_TO_A_BYTE lWordArray(lWordCount) = lWordArray(lWordCount) Or LShift(Asc(Mid(sMessage, lByteCount + 1, 1)), lBytePosition) lByteCount = lByteCount + 1 Loop lWordCount = lByteCount BYTES_TO_A_WORD lBytePosition = (lByteCount Mod BYTES_TO_A_WORD) * BITS_TO_A_BYTE lWordArray(lWordCount) = lWordArray(lWordCount) Or LShift(&H80, lBytePosition) lWordArray(lNumberOfWords - 2) = LShift(lMessageLength, 3) lWordArray(lNumberOfWords - 1) = RShift(lMessageLength, 29) ConvertToWordArray = lWordArray End Function Private Function WordToHex(lValue) Dim lByte Dim lCount For lCount = 0 To 3 lByte = RShift(lValue, lCount * BITS_TO_A_BYTE) And m_lOnBits(BITS_TO_A_BYTE - 1) WordToHex = WordToHex & Right("0" & Hex(lByte), 2) Next End Function Public Function MD5(sMessage) m_lOnBits(0) = CLng(1) m_lOnBits(1) = CLng(3) m_lOnBits(2) = CLng(7) m_lOnBits(3) = CLng(15) m_lOnBits(4) = CLng(31) m_lOnBits(5) = CLng(63) m_lOnBits(6) = CLng(127) m_lOnBits(7) = CLng(255) m_lOnBits(8) = CLng(511) m_lOnBits(9) = CLng(1023) m_lOnBits(10) = CLng(2047) m_lOnBits(11) = CLng(4095) m_lOnBits(12) = CLng(8191) m_lOnBits(13) = CLng(16383) m_lOnBits(14) = CLng(32767) m_lOnBits(15) = CLng(65535) m_lOnBits(16) = CLng(131071) m_lOnBits(17) = CLng(262143) m_lOnBits(18) = CLng(524287) m_lOnBits(19) = CLng(1048575) m_lOnBits(20) = CLng(2097151) m_lOnBits(21) = CLng(4194303) m_lOnBits(22) = CLng(8388607) m_lOnBits(23) = CLng(16777215) m_lOnBits(24) = CLng(33554431) m_lOnBits(25) = CLng(67108863) m_lOnBits(26) = CLng(134217727) m_lOnBits(27) = CLng(268435455) m_lOnBits(28) = CLng(536870911) m_lOnBits(29) = CLng(1073741823) m_lOnBits(30) = CLng(2147483647) m_l2Power(0) = CLng(1) m_l2Power(1) = CLng(2) m_l2Power(2) = CLng(4) m_l2Power(3) = CLng(8) m_l2Power(4) = CLng(16) m_l2Power(5) = CLng(32) m_l2Power(6) = CLng(64) m_l2Power(7) = CLng(128) m_l2Power(8) = CLng(256) m_l2Power(9) = CLng(512) m_l2Power(10) = CLng(1024) m_l2Power(11) = CLng(2048) m_l2Power(12) = CLng(4096) m_l2Power(13) = CLng(8192) m_l2Power(14) = CLng(16384) m_l2Power(15) = CLng(32768) m_l2Power(16) = CLng(65536) m_l2Power(17) = CLng(131072) m_l2Power(18) = CLng(262144) m_l2Power(19) = CLng(524288) m_l2Power(20) = CLng(1048576) m_l2Power(21) = CLng(2097152) m_l2Power(22) = CLng(4194304) m_l2Power(23) = CLng(8388608) m_l2Power(24) = CLng(16777216) m_l2Power(25) = CLng(33554432) m_l2Power(26) = CLng(67108864) m_l2Power(27) = CLng(134217728) m_l2Power(28) = CLng(268435456) m_l2Power(29) = CLng(536870912) m_l2Power(30) = CLng(1073741824) Dim x Dim k Dim AA Dim BB Dim CC Dim DD Dim a Dim b Dim c Dim d Const S11 = 7 Const S12 = 12 Const S13 = 17 Const S14 = 22 Const S21 = 5 Const S22 = 9 Const S23 = 14 Const S24 = 20 Const S31 = 4 Const S32 = 11 Const S33 = 16 Const S34 = 23 Const S41 = 6 Const S42 = 10 Const S43 = 15 Const S44 = 21 x = ConvertToWordArray(sMessage) a = &H67452301 b = &HEFCDAB89 c = &H98BADCFE d = &H10325476 For k = 0 To UBound(x) Step 16 AA = a BB = b CC = c DD = d md5_FF a, b, c, d, x(k + 0), S11, &HD76AA478 md5_FF d, a, b, c, x(k + 1), S12, &HE8C7B756 md5_FF c, d, a, b, x(k + 2), S13, &H242070DB md5_FF b, c, d, a, x(k + 3), S14, &HC1BDCEEE md5_FF a, b, c, d, x(k + 4), S11, &HF57C0FAF md5_FF d, a, b, c, x(k + 5), S12, &H4787C62A md5_FF c, d, a, b, x(k + 6), S13, &HA8304613 md5_FF b, c, d, a, x(k + 7), S14, &HFD469501 md5_FF a, b, c, d, x(k + 8), S11, &H698098D8 md5_FF d, a, b, c, x(k + 9), S12, &H8B44F7AF md5_FF c, d, a, b, x(k + 10), S13, &HFFFF5BB1 md5_FF b, c, d, a, x(k + 11), S14, &H895CD7BE md5_FF a, b, c, d, x(k + 12), S11, &H6B901122 md5_FF d, a, b, c, x(k + 13), S12, &HFD987193 md5_FF c, d, a, b, x(k + 14), S13, &HA679438E md5_FF b, c, d, a, x(k + 15), S14, &H49B40821 md5_GG a, b, c, d, x(k + 1), S21, &HF61E2562 md5_GG d, a, b, c, x(k + 6), S22, &HC040B340 md5_GG c, d, a, b, x(k + 11), S23, &H265E5A51 md5_GG b, c, d, a, x(k + 0), S24, &HE9B6C7AA md5_GG a, b, c, d, x(k + 5), S21, &HD62F105D md5_GG d, a, b, c, x(k + 10), S22, &H2441453 md5_GG c, d, a, b, x(k + 15), S23, &HD8A1E681 md5_GG b, c, d, a, x(k + 4), S24, &HE7D3FBC8 md5_GG a, b, c, d, x(k + 9), S21, &H21E1CDE6 md5_GG d, a, b, c, x(k + 14), S22, &HC33707D6 md5_GG c, d, a, b, x(k + 3), S23, &HF4D50D87 md5_GG b, c, d, a, x(k + 8), S24, &H455A14ED md5_GG a, b, c, d, x(k + 13), S21, &HA9E3E905 md5_GG d, a, b, c, x(k + 2), S22, &HFCEFA3F8 md5_GG c, d, a, b, x(k + 7), S23, &H676F02D9 md5_GG b, c, d, a, x(k + 12), S24, &H8D2A4C8A md5_HH a, b, c, d, x(k + 5), S31, &HFFFA3942 md5_HH d, a, b, c, x(k + 8), S32, &H8771F681 md5_HH c, d, a, b, x(k + 11), S33, &H6D9D6122 md5_HH b, c, d, a, x(k + 14), S34, &HFDE5380C md5_HH a, b, c, d, x(k + 1), S31, &HA4BEEA44 md5_HH d, a, b, c, x(k + 4), S32, &H4BDECFA9 md5_HH c, d, a, b, x(k + 7), S33, &HF6BB4B60 md5_HH b, c, d, a, x(k + 10), S34, &HBEBFBC70 md5_HH a, b, c, d, x(k + 13), S31, &H289B7EC6 md5_HH d, a, b, c, x(k + 0), S32, &HEAA127FA md5_HH c, d, a, b, x(k + 3), S33, &HD4EF3085 md5_HH b, c, d, a, x(k + 6), S34, &H4881D05 md5_HH a, b, c, d, x(k + 9), S31, &HD9D4D039 md5_HH d, a, b, c, x(k + 12), S32, &HE6DB99E5 md5_HH c, d, a, b, x(k + 15), S33, &H1FA27CF8 md5_HH b, c, d, a, x(k + 2), S34, &HC4AC5665 md5_II a, b, c, d, x(k + 0), S41, &HF4292244 md5_II d, a, b, c, x(k + 7), S42, &H432AFF97 md5_II c, d, a, b, x(k + 14), S43, &HAB9423A7 md5_II b, c, d, a, x(k + 5), S44, &HFC93A039 md5_II a, b, c, d, x(k + 12), S41, &H655B59C3 md5_II d, a, b, c, x(k + 3), S42, &H8F0CCC92 md5_II c, d, a, b, x(k + 10), S43, &HFFEFF47D md5_II b, c, d, a, x(k + 1), S44, &H85845DD1 md5_II a, b, c, d, x(k + 8), S41, &H6FA87E4F md5_II d, a, b, c, x(k + 15), S42, &HFE2CE6E0 md5_II c, d, a, b, x(k + 6), S43, &HA3014314 md5_II b, c, d, a, x(k + 13), S44, &H4E0811A1 md5_II a, b, c, d, x(k + 4), S41, &HF7537E82 md5_II d, a, b, c, x(k + 11), S42, &HBD3AF235 md5_II c, d, a, b, x(k + 2), S43, &H2AD7D2BB md5_II b, c, d, a, x(k + 9), S44, &HEB86D391 a = AddUnsigned(a, AA) b = AddUnsigned(b, BB) c = AddUnsigned(c, CC) d = AddUnsigned(d, DD) Next 'MD5 = LCase(WordToHex(a) & WordToHex(b) & WordToHex(c) & WordToHex(d)) MD5=LCase(WordToHex(b) & WordToHex(c)) 'I crop this to fit 16byte database password :D End Function %> index.asp(登陆页面)

log.asp <% Session.TimeOut=30 if request("action")="login" then admin=trim(request.form("admin")) for i=1 to len(admin) '用MID函数读出变量admin中i 位置的一个字符 manage=mid(admin,i,1) if manage="'" or manage="%" or manage="<" or manage=">" or manage="&" then '如果admin中含有' % < > &字符就转到出错页面 response.redirect "Error.asp" response.end end if next pwd=trim(request.form("pwd")) for i=1 to len(pwd) '用MID函数读出变量pwd中i 位置的一个字符 pass=mid(pwd,i,1) if pass="'" or pass="%" or pass="<" or pass=">" or pass="&" then '如果pass中含有' % < > &字符就转到出错页面 response.redirect "Error.asp" response.end end if next pwd=md5(pwd) if admin="" or pwd="" then Response.Redirect ("Index.asp") end if set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from admin where admin='"&admin&"'and pwd='"&pwd&"'" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 if not rs.eof then session("admin")=admin response.redirect"main.asp" else response.redirect"Error.asp" response.end end if end if if request("action")="logout" then session("admin")="" response.redirect"../index.asp" end if %> error.asp 登陆出错,三秒钟自动返回 其它想加密的页面调用chk.asp pwd.asp修改密码 <% if request("action")="edit" then admin=trim(request.form("admin")) pwd=md5(trim(request.form("pwd"))) set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from admin" rs.open sql,conn,3,2 rs("admin")=admin rs("pwd")=pwd rs.update set rs=nothing set conn=nothing response.write"" end if set rs=server.createobject("adodb.recordset") sql="select * from admin" rs.open sql,conn,1,1 %> ------------------------
" size="20"> " size="20">
info.asp(读取服务器基本参数) 无标题文档
恭喜:你已成功登陆后台管理!
 服务器名:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("SERVER_NAME")%>
 服务器IP:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("LOCAL_ADDR")%>
 服务器端口:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("SERVER_PORT")%>
 服务器时间:  <%=now%>
 IIS版本:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("SERVER_SOFTWARE")%>
 服务器操作系统:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("OS")%>
 脚本超时时间:  <%=Server.ScriptTimeout%> 秒
 站点物理路径:  <%=request.ServerVariables("APPL_PHYSICAL_PATH")%>
 服务器CPU数量:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS")%> 个
 服务器解译引擎:  <%=ScriptEngine & "/"& ScriptEngineMajorVersion &"."&ScriptEngineMinorVersion&"."& ScriptEngineBuildVersion %>
 本文件路径:  <%=Request.ServerVariables("PATH_TRANSLATED")%>
Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 6th Edition Solutions to Review Questions and Problems Version Date: May 2012 This document contains the solutions to review questions and problems for the 5th edition of Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach by Jim Kurose and Keith Ross. These solutions are being made available to instructors ONLY. Please do NOT copy or distribute this document to others (even other instructors). Please do not post any solutions on a publicly-available Web site. We’ll be happy to provide a copy (up-to-date) of this solution manual ourselves to anyone who asks. Acknowledgments: Over the years, several students and colleagues have helped us prepare this solutions manual. Special thanks goes to HongGang Zhang, Rakesh Kumar, Prithula Dhungel, and Vijay Annapureddy. Also thanks to all the readers who have made suggestions and corrected errors. All material © copyright 1996-2012 by J.F. Kurose and K.W. Ross. All rights reserved Chapter 1 Review Questions There is no difference. Throughout this text, the words “host” and “end system” are used interchangeably. End systems include PCs, workstations, Web servers, mail servers, PDAs, Internet-connected game consoles, etc. From Wikipedia: Diplomatic protocol is commonly described as a set of international courtesy rules. These well-established and time-honored rules have made it easier for nations and people to live and work together. Part of protocol has always been the acknowledgment of the hierarchical standing of all present. Protocol rules are based on the principles of civility. Standards are important for protocols so that people can create networking systems and products that interoperate. 1. Dial-up modem over telephone line: home; 2. DSL over telephone line: home or small office; 3. Cable to HFC: home; 4. 100 Mbps switched Ethernet: enterprise; 5. Wifi (802.11): home and enterprise: 6. 3G and 4G: wide-area wireless. HFC bandwidth is shared among the users. On the downstream channel, all packets emanate from a single source, namely, the head end. Thus, there are no collisions in the downstream channel. In most American cities, the current possibilities include: dial-up; DSL; cable modem; fiber-to-the-home. 7. Ethernet LANs have transmission rates of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps. 8. Today, Ethernet most commonly runs over twisted-pair copper wire. It also can run over fibers optic links. 9. Dial up modems: up to 56 Kbps, bandwidth is dedicated; ADSL: up to 24 Mbps downstream and 2.5 Mbps upstream, bandwidth is dedicated; HFC, rates up to 42.8 Mbps and upstream rates of up to 30.7 Mbps, bandwidth is shared. FTTH: 2-10Mbps upload; 10-20 Mbps download; bandwidth is not shared. 10. There are two popular wireless Internet access technologies today: Wifi (802.11) In a wireless LAN, wireless users transmit/receive packets to/from an base station (i.e., wireless access point) within a radius of few tens of meters. The base station is typically connected to the wired Internet and thus serves to connect wireless users to the wired network. 3G and 4G wide-area wireless access networks. In these systems, packets are transmitted over the same wireless infrastructure used for cellular telephony, with the base station thus being managed by a telecommunications provider. This provides wireless access to users within a radius of tens of kilometers of the base station. 11. At time t0 the sending host begins to transmit. At time t1 = L/R1, the sending host completes transmission and the entire packet is received at the router (no propagation delay). Because the router has the entire packet at time t1, it can begin to transmit the packet to the receiving host at time t1. At time t2 = t1 + L/R2, the router completes transmission and the entire packet is received at the receiving host (again, no propagation delay). Thus, the end-to-end delay is L/R1 + L/R2. 12. A circuit-switched network can guarantee a certain amount of end-to-end bandwidth for the duration of a call. Most packet-switched networks today (including the Internet) cannot make any end-to-end guarantees for bandwidth. FDM requires sophisticated analog hardware to shift signal into appropriate frequency bands. 13. a) 2 users can be supported because each user requires half of the link bandwidth. b) Since each user requires 1Mbps when transmitting, if two or fewer users transmit simultaneously, a maximum of 2Mbps will be required. Since the available bandwidth of the shared link is 2Mbps, there will be no queuing delay before the link. Whereas, if three users transmit simultaneously, the bandwidth required will be 3Mbps which is more than the available bandwidth of the shared link. In this case, there will be queuing delay before the link. c) Probability that a given user is transmitting = 0.2 d) Probability that all three users are transmitting simultaneously = = (0.2)3 = 0.008. Since the queue grows when all the users are transmitting, the fraction of time during which the queue grows (which is equal to the probability that all three users are transmitting simultaneously) is 0.008. 14. If the two ISPs do not peer with each other, then when they send traffic to each other they have to send the traffic through a provider ISP (intermediary), to which they have to pay for carrying the traffic. By peering with each other directly, the two ISPs can reduce their payments to their provider ISPs. An Internet Exchange Points (IXP) (typically in a standalone building with its own switches) is a meeting point where multiple ISPs can connect and/or peer together. An ISP earns its money by charging each of the the ISPs that connect to the IXP a relatively small fee, which may depend on the amount of traffic sent to or received from the IXP. 15. Google's private network connects together all its data centers, big and small. Traffic between the Google data centers passes over its private network rather than over the public Internet. Many of these data centers are located in, or close to, lower tier ISPs. Therefore, when Google delivers content to a user, it often can bypass higher tier ISPs. What motivates content providers to create these networks? First, the content provider has more control over the user experience, since it has to use few intermediary ISPs. Second, it can save money by sending less traffic into provider networks. Third, if ISPs decide to charge more money to highly profitable content providers (in countries where net neutrality doesn't apply), the content providers can avoid these extra payments. 16. The delay components are processing delays, transmission delays, propagation delays, and queuing delays. All of these delays are fixed, except for the queuing delays, which are variable. 17. a) 1000 km, 1 Mbps, 100 bytes b) 100 km, 1 Mbps, 100 bytes 18. 10msec; d/s; no; no 19. a) 500 kbps b) 64 seconds c) 100kbps; 320 seconds 20. End system A breaks the large file into chunks. It adds header to each chunk, thereby generating multiple packets from the file. The header in each packet includes the IP address of the destination (end system B). The packet switch uses the destination IP address in the packet to determine the outgoing link. Asking which road to take is analogous to a packet asking which outgoing link it should be forwarded on, given the packet’s destination address. 21. The maximum emission rate is 500 packets/sec and the maximum transmission rate is 350 packets/sec. The corresponding traffic intensity is 500/350 =1.43 > 1. Loss will eventually occur for each experiment; but the time when loss first occurs will be different from one experiment to the next due to the randomness in the emission process. 22. Five generic tasks are error control, flow control, segmentation and reassembly, multiplexing, and connection setup. Yes, these tasks can be duplicated at different layers. For example, error control is often provided at more than one layer. 23. The five layers in the Internet protocol stack are – from top to bottom – the application layer, the transport layer, the network layer, the link layer, and the physical layer. The principal responsibilities are outlined in Section 1.5.1. 24. Application-layer message: data which an application wants to send and passed onto the transport layer; transport-layer segment: generated by the transport layer and encapsulates application-layer message with transport layer header; network-layer datagram: encapsulates transport-layer segment with a network-layer header; link-layer frame: encapsulates network-layer datagram with a link-layer header. 25. Routers process network, link and physical layers (layers 1 through 3). (This is a little bit of a white lie, as modern routers sometimes act as firewalls or caching components, and process Transport layer as well.) Link layer switches process link and physical layers (layers 1 through2). Hosts process all five layers. 26. a) Virus Requires some form of human interaction to spread. Classic example: E-mail viruses. b) Worms No user replication needed. Worm in infected host scans IP addresses and port numbers, looking for vulnerable processes to infect. 27. Creation of a botnet requires an attacker to find vulnerability in some application or system (e.g. exploiting the buffer overflow vulnerability that might exist in an application). After finding the vulnerability, the attacker needs to scan for hosts that are vulnerable. The target is basically to compromise a series of systems by exploiting that particular vulnerability. Any system that is part of the botnet can automatically scan its environment and propagate by exploiting the vulnerability. An important property of such botnets is that the originator of the botnet can remotely control and issue commands to all the nodes in the botnet. Hence, it becomes possible for the attacker to issue a command to all the nodes, that target a single node (for example, all nodes in the botnet might be commanded by the attacker to send a TCP SYN message to the target, which might result in a TCP SYN flood attack at the target). 28. Trudy can pretend to be Bob to Alice (and vice-versa) and partially or completely modify the message(s) being sent from Bob to Alice. For example, she can easily change the phrase “Alice, I owe you $1000” to “Alice, I owe you $10,000”. Furthermore, Trudy can even drop the packets that are being sent by Bob to Alice (and vise-versa), even if the packets from Bob to Alice are encrypted. Chapter 1 Problems Problem 1 There is no single right answer to this question. Many protocols would do the trick. Here's a simple answer below: Messages from ATM machine to Server Msg name purpose -------- ------- HELO Let server know that there is a card in the ATM machine ATM card transmits user ID to Server PASSWD User enters PIN, which is sent to server BALANCE User requests balance WITHDRAWL User asks to withdraw money BYE user all done Messages from Server to ATM machine (display) Msg name purpose -------- ------- PASSWD Ask user for PIN (password) OK last requested operation (PASSWD, WITHDRAWL) OK ERR last requested operation (PASSWD, WITHDRAWL) in ERROR AMOUNT sent in response to BALANCE request BYE user done, display welcome screen at ATM Correct operation: client server HELO (userid) --------------> (check if valid userid) <------------- PASSWD PASSWD --------------> (check password) <------------- AMOUNT WITHDRAWL --------------> check if enough $ to cover withdrawl (check if valid userid) <------------- PASSWD PASSWD --------------> (check password) <------------- AMOUNT WITHDRAWL --------------> check if enough $ to cover withdrawl <------------- BYE Problem 2 At time N*(L/R) the first packet has reached the destination, the second packet is stored in the last router, the third packet is stored in the next-to-last router, etc. At time N*(L/R) + L/R, the second packet has reached the destination, the third packet is stored in the last router, etc. Continuing with this logic, we see that at time N*(L/R) + (P-1)*(L/R) = (N+P-1)*(L/R) all packets have reached the destination. Problem 3 a) A circuit-switched network would be well suited to the application, because the application involves long sessions with predictable smooth bandwidth requirements. Since the transmission rate is known and not bursty, bandwidth can be reserved for each application session without significant waste. In addition, the overhead costs of setting up and tearing down connections are amortized over the lengthy duration of a typical application session. b) In the worst case, all the applications simultaneously transmit over one or more network links. However, since each link has sufficient bandwidth to handle the sum of all of the applications' data rates, no congestion (very little queuing) will occur. Given such generous link capacities, the network does not need congestion control mechanisms. Problem 4 Between the switch in the upper left and the switch in the upper right we can have 4 connections. Similarly we can have four connections between each of the 3 other pairs of adjacent switches. Thus, this network can support up to 16 connections. We can 4 connections passing through the switch in the upper-right-hand corner and another 4 connections passing through the switch in the lower-left-hand corner, giving a total of 8 connections. Yes. For the connections between A and C, we route two connections through B and two connections through D. For the connections between B and D, we route two connections through A and two connections through C. In this manner, there are at most 4 connections passing through any link. Problem 5 Tollbooths are 75 km apart, and the cars propagate at 100km/hr. A tollbooth services a car at a rate of one car every 12 seconds. a) There are ten cars. It takes 120 seconds, or 2 minutes, for the first tollbooth to service the 10 cars. Each of these cars has a propagation delay of 45 minutes (travel 75 km) before arriving at the second tollbooth. Thus, all the cars are lined up before the second tollbooth after 47 minutes. The whole process repeats itself for traveling between the second and third tollbooths. It also takes 2 minutes for the third tollbooth to service the 10 cars. Thus the total delay is 96 minutes. b) Delay between tollbooths is 8*12 seconds plus 45 minutes, i.e., 46 minutes and 36 seconds. The total delay is twice this amount plus 8*12 seconds, i.e., 94 minutes and 48 seconds. Problem 6 a) seconds. b) seconds. c) seconds. d) The bit is just leaving Host A. e) The first bit is in the link and has not reached Host B. f) The first bit has reached Host B. g) Want km. Problem 7 Consider the first bit in a packet. Before this bit can be transmitted, all of the bits in the packet must be generated. This requires sec=7msec. The time required to transmit the packet is sec= sec. Propagation delay = 10 msec. The delay until decoding is 7msec + sec + 10msec = 17.224msec A similar analysis shows that all bits experience a delay of 17.224 msec. Problem 8 a) 20 users can be supported. b) . c) . d) . We use the central limit theorem to approximate this probability. Let be independent random variables such that . “21 or more users” when is a standard normal r.v. Thus “21 or more users” . Problem 9 10,000 Problem 10 The first end system requires L/R1 to transmit the packet onto the first link; the packet propagates over the first link in d1/s1; the packet switch adds a processing delay of dproc; after receiving the entire packet, the packet switch connecting the first and the second link requires L/R2 to transmit the packet onto the second link; the packet propagates over the second link in d2/s2. Similarly, we can find the delay caused by the second switch and the third link: L/R3, dproc, and d3/s3. Adding these five delays gives dend-end = L/R1 + L/R2 + L/R3 + d1/s1 + d2/s2 + d3/s3+ dproc+ dproc To answer the second question, we simply plug the values into the equation to get 6 + 6 + 6 + 20+16 + 4 + 3 + 3 = 64 msec. Problem 11 Because bits are immediately transmitted, the packet switch does not introduce any delay; in particular, it does not introduce a transmission delay. Thus, dend-end = L/R + d1/s1 + d2/s2+ d3/s3 For the values in Problem 10, we get 6 + 20 + 16 + 4 = 46 msec. Problem 12 The arriving packet must first wait for the link to transmit 4.5 *1,500 bytes = 6,750 bytes or 54,000 bits. Since these bits are transmitted at 2 Mbps, the queuing delay is 27 msec. Generally, the queuing delay is (nL + (L - x))/R. Problem 13 The queuing delay is 0 for the first transmitted packet, L/R for the second transmitted packet, and generally, (n-1)L/R for the nth transmitted packet. Thus, the average delay for the N packets is: (L/R + 2L/R + ....... + (N-1)L/R)/N = L/(RN) * (1 + 2 + ..... + (N-1)) = L/(RN) * N(N-1)/2 = LN(N-1)/(2RN) = (N-1)L/(2R) Note that here we used the well-known fact: 1 + 2 + ....... + N = N(N+1)/2 It takes seconds to transmit the packets. Thus, the buffer is empty when a each batch of packets arrive. Thus, the average delay of a packet across all batches is the average delay within one batch, i.e., (N-1)L/2R. Problem 14 The transmission delay is . The total delay is Let . Total delay = For x=0, the total delay =0; as we increase x, total delay increases, approaching infinity as x approaches 1/a. Problem 15 Total delay . Problem 16 The total number of packets in the system includes those in the buffer and the packet that is being transmitted. So, N=10+1. Because , so (10+1)=a*(queuing delay + transmission delay). That is, 11=a*(0.01+1/100)=a*(0.01+0.01). Thus, a=550 packets/sec. Problem 17 There are nodes (the source host and the routers). Let denote the processing delay at the th node. Let be the transmission rate of the th link and let . Let be the propagation delay across the th link. Then . Let denote the average queuing delay at node . Then . Problem 18 On linux you can use the command traceroute www.targethost.com and in the Windows command prompt you can use tracert www.targethost.com In either case, you will get three delay measurements. For those three measurements you can calculate the mean and standard deviation. Repeat the experiment at different times of the day and comment on any changes. Here is an example solution: Traceroutes between San Diego Super Computer Center and www.poly.edu The average (mean) of the round-trip delays at each of the three hours is 71.18 ms, 71.38 ms and 71.55 ms, respectively. The standard deviations are 0.075 ms, 0.21 ms, 0.05 ms, respectively. In this example, the traceroutes have 12 routers in the path at each of the three hours. No, the paths didn’t change during any of the hours. Traceroute packets passed through four ISP networks from source to destination. Yes, in this experiment the largest delays occurred at peering interfaces between adjacent ISPs. Traceroutes from www.stella-net.net (France) to www.poly.edu (USA). The average round-trip delays at each of the three hours are 87.09 ms, 86.35 ms and 86.48 ms, respectively. The standard deviations are 0.53 ms, 0.18 ms, 0.23 ms, respectively. In this example, there are 11 routers in the path at each of the three hours. No, the paths didn’t change during any of the hours. Traceroute packets passed three ISP networks from source to destination. Yes, in this experiment the largest delays occurred at peering interfaces between adjacent ISPs. Problem 19 An example solution: Traceroutes from two different cities in France to New York City in United States In these traceroutes from two different cities in France to the same destination host in United States, seven links are in common including the transatlantic link. In this example of traceroutes from one city in France and from another city in Germany to the same host in United States, three links are in common including the transatlantic link. Traceroutes to two different cities in China from same host in United States Five links are common in the two traceroutes. The two traceroutes diverge before reaching China Problem 20 Throughput = min{Rs, Rc, R/M} Problem 21 If only use one path, the max throughput is given by: . If use all paths, the max throughput is given by . Problem 22 Probability of successfully receiving a packet is: ps= (1-p)N. The number of transmissions needed to be performed until the packet is successfully received by the client is a geometric random variable with success probability ps. Thus, the average number of transmissions needed is given by: 1/ps . Then, the average number of re-transmissions needed is given by: 1/ps -1. Problem 23 Let’s call the first packet A and call the second packet B. If the bottleneck link is the first link, then packet B is queued at the first link waiting for the transmission of packet A. So the packet inter-arrival time at the destination is simply L/Rs. If the second link is the bottleneck link and both packets are sent back to back, it must be true that the second packet arrives at the input queue of the second link before the second link finishes the transmission of the first packet. That is, L/Rs + L/Rs + dprop = L/Rs + dprop + L/Rc Thus, the minimum value of T is L/Rc  L/Rs . Problem 24 40 terabytes = 40 * 1012 * 8 bits. So, if using the dedicated link, it will take 40 * 1012 * 8 / (100 *106 ) =3200000 seconds = 37 days. But with FedEx overnight delivery, you can guarantee the data arrives in one day, and it should cost less than $100. Problem 25 160,000 bits 160,000 bits The bandwidth-delay product of a link is the maximum number of bits that can be in the link. the width of a bit = length of link / bandwidth-delay product, so 1 bit is 125 meters long, which is longer than a football field s/R Problem 26 s/R=20000km, then R=s/20000km= 2.5*108/(2*107)= 12.5 bps Problem 27 80,000,000 bits 800,000 bits, this is because that the maximum number of bits that will be in the link at any given time = min(bandwidth delay product, packet size) = 800,000 bits. .25 meters Problem 28 ttrans + tprop = 400 msec + 80 msec = 480 msec. 20 * (ttrans + 2 tprop) = 20*(20 msec + 80 msec) = 2 sec. Breaking up a file takes longer to transmit because each data packet and its corresponding acknowledgement packet add their own propagation delays. Problem 29 Recall geostationary satellite is 36,000 kilometers away from earth surface. 150 msec 1,500,000 bits 600,000,000 bits Problem 30 Let’s suppose the passenger and his/her bags correspond to the data unit arriving to the top of the protocol stack. When the passenger checks in, his/her bags are checked, and a tag is attached to the bags and ticket. This is additional information added in the Baggage layer if Figure 1.20 that allows the Baggage layer to implement the service or separating the passengers and baggage on the sending side, and then reuniting them (hopefully!) on the destination side. When a passenger then passes through security and additional stamp is often added to his/her ticket, indicating that the passenger has passed through a security check. This information is used to ensure (e.g., by later checks for the security information) secure transfer of people. Problem 31 Time to send message from source host to first packet switch = With store-and-forward switching, the total time to move message from source host to destination host = Time to send 1st packet from source host to first packet switch = . . Time at which 2nd packet is received at the first switch = time at which 1st packet is received at the second switch = Time at which 1st packet is received at the destination host = . After this, every 5msec one packet will be received; thus time at which last (800th) packet is received = . It can be seen that delay in using message segmentation is significantly less (almost 1/3rd). Without message segmentation, if bit errors are not tolerated, if there is a single bit error, the whole message has to be retransmitted (rather than a single packet). Without message segmentation, huge packets (containing HD videos, for example) are sent into the network. Routers have to accommodate these huge packets. Smaller packets have to queue behind enormous packets and suffer unfair delays. Packets have to be put in sequence at the destination. Message segmentation results in many smaller packets. Since header size is usually the same for all packets regardless of their size, with message segmentation the total amount of header bytes is more. Problem 32 Yes, the delays in the applet correspond to the delays in the Problem 31.The propagation delays affect the overall end-to-end delays both for packet switching and message switching equally. Problem 33 There are F/S packets. Each packet is S=80 bits. Time at which the last packet is received at the first router is sec. At this time, the first F/S-2 packets are at the destination, and the F/S-1 packet is at the second router. The last packet must then be transmitted by the first router and the second router, with each transmission taking sec. Thus delay in sending the whole file is To calculate the value of S which leads to the minimum delay, Problem 34 The circuit-switched telephone networks and the Internet are connected together at "gateways". When a Skype user (connected to the Internet) calls an ordinary telephone, a circuit is established between a gateway and the telephone user over the circuit switched network. The skype user's voice is sent in packets over the Internet to the gateway. At the gateway, the voice signal is reconstructed and then sent over the circuit. In the other direction, the voice signal is sent over the circuit switched network to the gateway. The gateway packetizes the voice signal and sends the voice packets to the Skype user.   Chapter 2 Review Questions The Web: HTTP; file transfer: FTP; remote login: Telnet; e-mail: SMTP; BitTorrent file sharing: BitTorrent protocol Network architecture refers to the organization of the communication process into layers (e.g., the five-layer Internet architecture). Application architecture, on the other hand, is designed by an application developer and dictates the broad structure of the application (e.g., client-server or P2P). The process which initiates the communication is the client; the process that waits to be contacted is the server. No. In a P2P file-sharing application, the peer that is receiving a file is typically the client and the peer that is sending the file is typically the server. The IP address of the destination host and the port number of the socket in the destination process. You would use UDP. With UDP, the transaction can be completed in one roundtrip time (RTT) - the client sends the transaction request into a UDP socket, and the server sends the reply back to the client's UDP socket. With TCP, a minimum of two RTTs are needed - one to set-up the TCP connection, and another for the client to send the request, and for the server to send back the reply. One such example is remote word processing, for example, with Google docs. However, because Google docs runs over the Internet (using TCP), timing guarantees are not provided. a) Reliable data transfer TCP provides a reliable byte-stream between client and server but UDP does not. b) A guarantee that a certain value for throughput will be maintained Neither c) A guarantee that data will be delivered within a specified amount of time Neither d) Confidentiality (via encryption) Neither SSL operates at the application layer. The SSL socket takes unencrypted data from the application layer, encrypts it and then passes it to the TCP socket. If the application developer wants TCP to be enhanced with SSL, she has to include the SSL code in the application. A protocol uses handshaking if the two communicating entities first exchange control packets before sending data to each other. SMTP uses handshaking at the application layer whereas HTTP does not. The applications associated with those protocols require that all application data be received in the correct order and without gaps. TCP provides this service whereas UDP does not. When the user first visits the site, the server creates a unique identification number, creates an entry in its back-end database, and returns this identification number as a cookie number. This cookie number is stored on the user’s host and is managed by the browser. During each subsequent visit (and purchase), the browser sends the cookie number back to the site. Thus the site knows when this user (more precisely, this browser) is visiting the site. Web caching can bring the desired content “closer” to the user, possibly to the same LAN to which the user’s host is connected. Web caching can reduce the delay for all objects, even objects that are not cached, since caching reduces the traffic on links. Telnet is not available in Windows 7 by default. to make it available, go to Control Panel, Programs and Features, Turn Windows Features On or Off, Check Telnet client. To start Telnet, in Windows command prompt, issue the following command > telnet webserverver 80 where "webserver" is some webserver. After issuing the command, you have established a TCP connection between your client telnet program and the web server. Then type in an HTTP GET message. An example is given below: Since the index.html page in this web server was not modified since Fri, 18 May 2007 09:23:34 GMT, and the above commands were issued on Sat, 19 May 2007, the server returned "304 Not Modified". Note that the first 4 lines are the GET message and header lines inputed by the user, and the next 4 lines (starting from HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified) is the response from the web server. FTP uses two parallel TCP connections, one connection for sending control information (such as a request to transfer a file) and another connection for actually transferring the file. Because the control information is not sent over the same connection that the file is sent over, FTP sends control information out of band. The message is first sent from Alice’s host to her mail server over HTTP. Alice’s mail server then sends the message to Bob’s mail server over SMTP. Bob then transfers the message from his mail server to his host over POP3. 17. Received: from 65.54.246.203 (EHLO bay0-omc3-s3.bay0.hotmail.com) (65.54.246.203) by mta419.mail.mud.yahoo.com with SMTP; Sat, 19 May 2007 16:53:51 -0700 Received: from hotmail.com ([65.55.135.106]) by bay0-omc3-s3.bay0.hotmail.com with Microsoft SMTPSVC(6.0.3790.2668); Sat, 19 May 2007 16:52:42 -0700 Received: from mail pickup service by hotmail.com with Microsoft SMTPSVC; Sat, 19 May 2007 16:52:41 -0700 Message-ID: Received: from 65.55.135.123 by by130fd.bay130.hotmail.msn.com with HTTP; Sat, 19 May 2007 23:52:36 GMT From: "prithula dhungel" To: prithula@yahoo.com Bcc: Subject: Test mail Date: Sat, 19 May 2007 23:52:36 +0000 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: Text/html; format=flowed Return-Path: prithuladhungel@hotmail.com Figure: A sample mail message header Received: This header field indicates the sequence in which the SMTP servers send and receive the mail message including the respective timestamps. In this example there are 4 “Received:” header lines. This means the mail message passed through 5 different SMTP servers before being delivered to the receiver’s mail box. The last (forth) “Received:” header indicates the mail message flow from the SMTP server of the sender to the second SMTP server in the chain of servers. The sender’s SMTP server is at address 65.55.135.123 and the second SMTP server in the chain is by130fd.bay130.hotmail.msn.com. The third “Received:” header indicates the mail message flow from the second SMTP server in the chain to the third server, and so on. Finally, the first “Received:” header indicates the flow of the mail messages from the forth SMTP server to the last SMTP server (i.e. the receiver’s mail server) in the chain. Message-id: The message has been given this number BAY130-F26D9E35BF59E0D18A819AFB9310@phx.gbl (by bay0-omc3-s3.bay0.hotmail.com. Message-id is a unique string assigned by the mail system when the message is first created. From: This indicates the email address of the sender of the mail. In the given example, the sender is “prithuladhungel@hotmail.com” To: This field indicates the email address of the receiver of the mail. In the example, the receiver is “prithula@yahoo.com” Subject: This gives the subject of the mail (if any specified by the sender). In the example, the subject specified by the sender is “Test mail” Date: The date and time when the mail was sent by the sender. In the example, the sender sent the mail on 19th May 2007, at time 23:52:36 GMT. Mime-version: MIME version used for the mail. In the example, it is 1.0. Content-type: The type of content in the body of the mail message. In the example, it is “text/html”. Return-Path: This specifies the email address to which the mail will be sent if the receiver of this mail wants to reply to the sender. This is also used by the sender’s mail server for bouncing back undeliverable mail messages of mailer-daemon error messages. In the example, the return path is “prithuladhungel@hotmail.com”. With download and delete, after a user retrieves its messages from a POP server, the messages are deleted. This poses a problem for the nomadic user, who may want to access the messages from many different machines (office PC, home PC, etc.). In the download and keep configuration, messages are not deleted after the user retrieves the messages. This can also be inconvenient, as each time the user retrieves the stored messages from a new machine, all of non-deleted messages will be transferred to the new machine (including very old messages). Yes an organization’s mail server and Web server can have the same alias for a host name. The MX record is used to map the mail server’s host name to its IP address. You should be able to see the sender's IP address for a user with an .edu email address. But you will not be able to see the sender's IP address if the user uses a gmail account. It is not necessary that Bob will also provide chunks to Alice. Alice has to be in the top 4 neighbors of Bob for Bob to send out chunks to her; this might not occur even if Alice provides chunks to Bob throughout a 30-second interval. Recall that in BitTorrent, a peer picks a random peer and optimistically unchokes the peer for a short period of time. Therefore, Alice will eventually be optimistically unchoked by one of her neighbors, during which time she will receive chunks from that neighbor. The overlay network in a P2P file sharing system consists of the nodes participating in the file sharing system and the logical links between the nodes. There is a logical link (an “edge” in graph theory terms) from node A to node B if there is a semi-permanent TCP connection between A and B. An overlay network does not include routers. Mesh DHT: The advantage is in order to a route a message to the peer (with ID) that is closest to the key, only one hop is required; the disadvantage is that each peer must track all other peers in the DHT. Circular DHT: the advantage is that each peer needs to track only a few other peers; the disadvantage is that O(N) hops are needed to route a message to the peer that is closest to the key. 25. File Distribution Instant Messaging Video Streaming Distributed Computing With the UDP server, there is no welcoming socket, and all data from different clients enters the server through this one socket. With the TCP server, there is a welcoming socket, and each time a client initiates a connection to the server, a new socket is created. Thus, to support n simultaneous connections, the server would need n+1 sockets. For the TCP application, as soon as the client is executed, it attempts to initiate a TCP connection with the server. If the TCP server is not running, then the client will fail to make a connection. For the UDP application, the client does not initiate connections (or attempt to communicate with the UDP server) immediately upon execution Chapter 2 Problems Problem 1 a) F b) T c) F d) F e) F Problem 2 Access control commands: USER, PASS, ACT, CWD, CDUP, SMNT, REIN, QUIT. Transfer parameter commands: PORT, PASV, TYPE STRU, MODE. Service commands: RETR, STOR, STOU, APPE, ALLO, REST, RNFR, RNTO, ABOR, DELE, RMD, MRD, PWD, LIST, NLST, SITE, SYST, STAT, HELP, NOOP. Problem 3 Application layer protocols: DNS and HTTP Transport layer protocols: UDP for DNS; TCP for HTTP Problem 4 The document request was http://gaia.cs.umass.edu/cs453/index.html. The Host : field indicates the server's name and /cs453/index.html indicates the file name. The browser is running HTTP version 1.1, as indicated just before the first pair. The browser is requesting a persistent connection, as indicated by the Connection: keep-alive. This is a trick question. This information is not contained in an HTTP message anywhere. So there is no way to tell this from looking at the exchange of HTTP messages alone. One would need information from the IP datagrams (that carried the TCP segment that carried the HTTP GET request) to answer this question. Mozilla/5.0. The browser type information is needed by the server to send different versions of the same object to different types of browsers. Problem 5 The status code of 200 and the phrase OK indicate that the server was able to locate the document successfully. The reply was provided on Tuesday, 07 Mar 2008 12:39:45 Greenwich Mean Time. The document index.html was last modified on Saturday 10 Dec 2005 18:27:46 GMT. There are 3874 bytes in the document being returned. The first five bytes of the returned document are :
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