openGauss数据库导入csv数据:invalid input syntax for integer

橘猫h 2023-04-30 20:13:59


staffs=# copy department from '/home/omm/department.csv';
ERROR:  invalid input syntax for integer: "1,销售部,负责公司产品销售工作"
CONTEXT:  COPY department, line 1, column d_id: "1,销售部,负责公司产品销售工作"





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Gsv_zero 02-27
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或许你可以加上with(format csv)指定一下csv格式

Python参考手册,官方正式版参考手册,chm版。以下摘取部分内容:Navigation index modules | next | Python » 3.6.5 Documentation » Python Documentation contents What’s New in Python What’s New In Python 3.6 Summary – Release highlights New Features PEP 498: Formatted string literals PEP 526: Syntax for variable annotations PEP 515: Underscores in Numeric Literals PEP 525: Asynchronous Generators PEP 530: Asynchronous Comprehensions PEP 487: Simpler customization of class creation PEP 487: Descriptor Protocol Enhancements PEP 519: Adding a file system path protocol PEP 495: Local Time Disambiguation PEP 529: Change Windows filesystem encoding to UTF-8 PEP 528: Change Windows console encoding to UTF-8 PEP 520: Preserving Class Attribute Definition Order PEP 468: Preserving Keyword Argument Order New dict implementation PEP 523: Adding a frame evaluation API to CPython PYTHONMALLOC environment variable DTrace and SystemTap probing support Other Language Changes New Modules secrets Improved Modules array ast asyncio binascii cmath collections concurrent.futures contextlib datetime decimal distutils email encodings enum faulthandler fileinput hashlib http.client idlelib and IDLE importlib inspect json logging math multiprocessing os pathlib pdb pickle pickletools pydoc random re readline rlcompleter shlex site sqlite3 socket socketserver ssl statistics struct subprocess sys telnetlib time timeit tkinter traceback tracemalloc typing unicodedata unittest.mock urllib.request urllib.robotparser venv warnings winreg winsound xmlrpc.client zipfile zlib Optimizations Build and C API Changes Other Improvements Deprecated New Keywords Deprecated Python behavior Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods asynchat asyncore dbm distutils grp importlib os re ssl tkinter venv Deprecated functions and types of the C API Deprecated Build Options Removed API and Feature Removals Porting to Python 3.6 Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API CPython bytecode changes Notable changes in Python 3.6.2 New make regen-all build target Removal of make touch build target Notable changes in Python 3.6.5 What’s New In Python 3.5 Summary – Release highlights New Features PEP 492 - Coroutines with async and await syntax PEP 465 - A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication PEP 448 - Additional Unpacking Generalizations PEP 461 - percent formatting support for bytes and bytearray PEP 484 - Type Hints PEP 471 - os.scandir() function – a better and faster directory iterator PEP 475: Retry system calls failing with EINTR PEP 479: Change StopIteration handling inside generators PEP 485: A function for testing approximate equality PEP 486: Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments PEP 488: Elimination of PYO files PEP 489: Multi-phase extension module initialization Other Language Changes New Modules typing zipapp Improved Modules argparse asyncio bz2 cgi cmath code collections compileall concurrent.futures configparser contextlib csv curses dbm difflib distutils doctest email enum faulthandler functools glob gzip heapq http http.client idlelib and IDLE imaplib imghdr importlib inspect io ipaddress json linecache locale logging lzma math multiprocessing operator os pathlib pickle poplib re readline selectors shutil signal smtpd smtplib sndhdr socket ssl Memory BIO Support Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation Support Other Changes sqlite3 subprocess sys sysconfig tarfile threading time timeit tkinter traceback types unicodedata unittest unittest.mock urllib wsgiref xmlrpc xml.sax zipfile Other module-level changes Optimizations Build and C API Changes Deprecated New Keywords Deprecated Python Behavior Unsupported Operating Systems Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods Removed API and Feature Removals Porting to Python 3.5 Changes in Python behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API What’s New In Python 3.4 Summary – Release Highlights New Features PEP 453: Explicit Bootstrapping of PIP in Python Installations Bootstrapping pip By Default Documentation Changes PEP 446: Newly Created File Descriptors Are Non-Inheritable Improvements to Codec Handling PEP 451: A ModuleSpec Type for the Import System Other Language Changes New Modules asyncio ensurepip enum pathlib selectors statistics tracemalloc Improved Modules abc aifc argparse audioop base64 collections colorsys contextlib dbm dis doctest email filecmp functools gc glob hashlib hmac html http idlelib and IDLE importlib inspect ipaddress logging marshal mmap multiprocessing operator os pdb pickle plistlib poplib pprint pty pydoc re resource select shelve shutil smtpd smtplib socket sqlite3 ssl stat struct subprocess sunau sys tarfile textwrap threading traceback types urllib unittest venv wave weakref xml.etree zipfile CPython Implementation Changes PEP 445: Customization of CPython Memory Allocators PEP 442: Safe Object Finalization PEP 456: Secure and Interchangeable Hash Algorithm PEP 436: Argument Clinic Other Build and C API Changes Other Improvements Significant Optimizations Deprecated Deprecations in the Python API Deprecated Features Removed Operating Systems No Longer Supported API and Feature Removals Code Cleanups Porting to Python 3.4 Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API Changed in 3.4.3 PEP 476: Enabling certificate verification by default for stdlib http clients What’s New In Python 3.3 Summary – Release highlights PEP 405: Virtual Environments PEP 420: Implicit Namespace Packages PEP 3118: New memoryview implementation and buffer protocol documentation Features API changes PEP 393: Flexible String Representation Functionality Performance and resource usage PEP 397: Python Launcher for Windows PEP 3151: Reworking the OS and IO exception hierarchy PEP 380: Syntax for Delegating to a Subgenerator PEP 409: Suppressing exception context PEP 414: Explicit Unicode literals PEP 3155: Qualified name for classes and functions PEP 412: Key-Sharing Dictionary PEP 362: Function Signature Object PEP 421: Adding sys.implementation SimpleNamespace Using importlib as the Implementation of Import New APIs Visible Changes Other Language Changes A Finer-Grained Import Lock Builtin functions and types New Modules faulthandler ipaddress lzma Improved Modules abc array base64 binascii bz2 codecs collections contextlib crypt curses datetime decimal Features API changes email Policy Framework Provisional Policy with New Header API Other API Changes ftplib functools gc hmac http html imaplib inspect io itertools logging math mmap multiprocessing nntplib os pdb pickle pydoc re sched select shlex shutil signal smtpd smtplib socket socketserver sqlite3 ssl stat struct subprocess sys tarfile tempfile textwrap threading time types unittest urllib webbrowser xml.etree.ElementTree zlib Optimizations Build and C API Changes Deprecated Unsupported Operating Systems Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods Deprecated functions and types of the C API Deprecated features Porting to Python 3.3 Porting Python code Porting C code Building C extensions Command Line Switch Changes What’s New In Python 3.2 PEP 384: Defining a Stable ABI PEP 389: Argparse Command Line Parsing Module PEP 391: Dictionary Based Configuration for Logging PEP 3148: The concurrent.futures module PEP 3147: PYC Repository Directories PEP 3149: ABI Version Tagged .so Files PEP 3333: Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0.1 Other Language Changes New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules email elementtree functools itertools collections threading datetime and time math abc io reprlib logging csv contextlib decimal and fractions ftp popen select gzip and zipfile tarfile hashlib ast os shutil sqlite3 html socket ssl nntp certificates imaplib http.client unittest random poplib asyncore tempfile inspect pydoc dis dbm ctypes site sysconfig pdb configparser urllib.parse mailbox turtledemo Multi-threading Optimizations Unicode Codecs Documentation IDLE Code Repository Build and C API Changes Porting to Python 3.2 What’s New In Python 3.1 PEP 372: Ordered Dictionaries PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator Other Language Changes New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules Optimizations IDLE Build and C API Changes Porting to Python 3.1 What’s New In Python 3.0 Common Stumbling Blocks Print Is A Function Views And Iterators Instead Of Lists Ordering Comparisons Integers Text Vs. Data Instead Of Unicode Vs. 8-bit Overview Of Syntax Changes New Syntax Changed Syntax Removed Syntax Changes Already Present In Python 2.6 Library Changes PEP 3101: A New Approach To String Formatting Changes To Exceptions Miscellaneous Other Changes Operators And Special Methods Builtins Build and C API Changes Performance Porting To Python 3.0 What’s New in Python 2.7 The Future for Python 2.x Changes to the Handling of Deprecation Warnings Python 3.1 Features PEP 372: Adding an Ordered Dictionary to collections PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator PEP 389: The argparse Module for Parsing Command Lines PEP 391: Dictionary-Based Configuration For Logging PEP 3106: Dictionary Views PEP 3137: The memoryview Object Other Language Changes Interpreter Changes Optimizations New and Improved Modules New module: importlib New module: sysconfig ttk: Themed Widgets for Tk Updated module: unittest Updated module: ElementTree 1.3 Build and C API Changes Capsules Port-Specific Changes: Windows Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X Port-Specific Changes: FreeBSD Other Changes and Fixes Porting to Python 2.7 New Features Added to Python 2.7 Maintenance Releases PEP 434: IDLE Enhancement Exception for All Branches PEP 466: Network Security Enhancements for Python 2.7 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.6 Python 3.0 Changes to the Development Process New Issue Tracker: Roundup New Documentation Format: reStructuredText Using Sphinx PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement Writing Context Managers The contextlib module PEP 366: Explicit Relative Imports From a Main Module PEP 370: Per-user site-packages Directory PEP 371: The multiprocessing Package PEP 3101: Advanced String Formatting PEP 3105: print As a Function PEP 3110: Exception-Handling Changes PEP 3112: Byte Literals PEP 3116: New I/O Library PEP 3118: Revised Buffer Protocol PEP 3119: Abstract Base Classes PEP 3127: Integer Literal Support and Syntax PEP 3129: Class Decorators PEP 3141: A Type Hierarchy for Numbers The fractions Module Other Language Changes Optimizations Interpreter Changes New and Improved Modules The ast module The future_builtins module The json module: JavaScript Object Notation The plistlib module: A Property-List Parser ctypes Enhancements Improved SSL Support Deprecations and Removals Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes: Windows Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X Port-Specific Changes: IRIX Porting to Python 2.6 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.5 PEP 308: Conditional Expressions PEP 309: Partial Function Application PEP 314: Metadata for Python Software Packages v1.1 PEP 328: Absolute and Relative Imports PEP 338: Executing Modules as Scripts PEP 341: Unified try/except/finally PEP 342: New Generator Features PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement Writing Context Managers The contextlib module PEP 352: Exceptions as New-Style Classes PEP 353: Using ssize_t as the index type PEP 357: The ‘__index__’ method Other Language Changes Interactive Interpreter Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Removed Modules The ctypes package The ElementTree package The hashlib package The sqlite3 package The wsgiref package Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Porting to Python 2.5 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.4 PEP 218: Built-In Set Objects PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers PEP 289: Generator Expressions PEP 292: Simpler String Substitutions PEP 318: Decorators for Functions and Methods PEP 322: Reverse Iteration PEP 324: New subprocess Module PEP 327: Decimal Data Type Why is Decimal needed? The Decimal type The Context type PEP 328: Multi-line Imports PEP 331: Locale-Independent Float/String Conversions Other Language Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules cookielib doctest Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Porting to Python 2.4 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.3 PEP 218: A Standard Set Datatype PEP 255: Simple Generators PEP 263: Source Code Encodings PEP 273: Importing Modules from ZIP Archives PEP 277: Unicode file name support for Windows NT PEP 278: Universal Newline Support PEP 279: enumerate() PEP 282: The logging Package PEP 285: A Boolean Type PEP 293: Codec Error Handling Callbacks PEP 301: Package Index and Metadata for Distutils PEP 302: New Import Hooks PEP 305: Comma-separated Files PEP 307: Pickle Enhancements Extended Slices Other Language Changes String Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules Date/Time Type The optparse Module Pymalloc: A Specialized Object Allocator Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Other Changes and Fixes Porting to Python 2.3 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.2 Introduction PEPs 252 and 253: Type and Class Changes Old and New Classes Descriptors Multiple Inheritance: The Diamond Rule Attribute Access Related Links PEP 234: Iterators PEP 255: Simple Generators PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers PEP 238: Changing the Division Operator Unicode Changes PEP 227: Nested Scopes New and Improved Modules Interpreter Changes and Fixes Other Changes and Fixes Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.1 Introduction PEP 227: Nested Scopes PEP 236: __future__ Directives PEP 207: Rich Comparisons PEP 230: Warning Framework PEP 229: New Build System PEP 205: Weak References PEP 232: Function Attributes PEP 235: Importing Modules on Case-Insensitive Platforms PEP 217: Interactive Display Hook PEP 208: New Coercion Model PEP 241: Metadata in Python Packages New and Improved Modules Other Changes and Fixes Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.0 Introduction What About Python 1.6? New Development Process Unicode List Comprehensions Augmented Assignment String Methods Garbage Collection of Cycles Other Core Changes Minor Language Changes Changes to Built-in Functions Porting to 2.0 Extending/Embedding Changes Distutils: Making Modules Easy to Install XML Modules SAX2 Support DOM Support Relationship to PyXML Module changes New modules IDLE Improvements Deleted and Deprecated Modules Acknowledgements Changelog Python 3.6.5 final? Tests Build Python 3.6.5 release candidate 1? Security Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows macOS IDLE Tools/Demos C API Python 3.6.4 final? Python 3.6.4 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows macOS IDLE Tools/Demos C API Python 3.6.3 final? Library Build Python 3.6.3 release candidate 1? Security Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows IDLE Tools/Demos Python 3.6.2 final? Python 3.6.2 release candidate 2? Security Python 3.6.2 release candidate 1? 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Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Windows Build Windows C API Tools/Demos Python 3.6.0 alpha 1? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos C API Python 3.5.3 final? Python 3.5.3 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library IDLE C API Documentation Tests Tools/Demos Windows Build Python 3.5.2 final? Core and Builtins Tests IDLE Python 3.5.2 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Security Library Security Library Security Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos Windows Python 3.5.1 final? Core and Builtins Windows Python 3.5.1 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 final? Build Python 3.5.0 release candidate 4? Library Build Python 3.5.0 release candidate 3? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 release candidate 2? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Documentation Tests Python 3.5.0 beta 4? Core and Builtins Library Build Python 3.5.0 beta 3? Core and Builtins Library Tests Documentation Build Python 3.5.0 beta 2? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 beta 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Tests Documentation Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 alpha 4? Core and Builtins Library Build Tests Tools/Demos C API Python 3.5.0 alpha 3? Core and Builtins Library Build Tests Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 alpha 2? Core and Builtins Library Build C API Windows Python 3.5.0 alpha 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Build C API Documentation Tests Tools/Demos Windows The Python Tutorial 1. Whetting Your Appetite 2. Using the Python Interpreter 2.1. Invoking the Interpreter 2.1.1. Argument Passing 2.1.2. Interactive Mode 2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment 2.2.1. Source Code Encoding 3. An Informal Introduction to Python 3.1. Using Python as a Calculator 3.1.1. Numbers 3.1.2. Strings 3.1.3. Lists 3.2. First Steps Towards Programming 4. More Control Flow Tools 4.1. if Statements 4.2. for Statements 4.3. The range() Function 4.4. break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops 4.5. pass Statements 4.6. Defining Functions 4.7. More on Defining Functions 4.7.1. Default Argument Values 4.7.2. Keyword Arguments 4.7.3. Arbitrary Argument Lists 4.7.4. Unpacking Argument Lists 4.7.5. Lambda Expressions 4.7.6. Documentation Strings 4.7.7. Function Annotations 4.8. Intermezzo: Coding Style 5. Data Structures 5.1. More on Lists 5.1.1. Using Lists as Stacks 5.1.2. Using Lists as Queues 5.1.3. List Comprehensions 5.1.4. Nested List Comprehensions 5.2. The del statement 5.3. Tuples and Sequences 5.4. Sets 5.5. Dictionaries 5.6. Looping Techniques 5.7. More on Conditions 5.8. Comparing Sequences and Other Types 6. Modules 6.1. More on Modules 6.1.1. Executing modules as scripts 6.1.2. The Module Search Path 6.1.3. “Compiled” Python files 6.2. Standard Modules 6.3. The dir() Function 6.4. Packages 6.4.1. Importing * From a Package 6.4.2. Intra-package References 6.4.3. Packages in Multiple Directories 7. Input and Output 7.1. Fancier Output Formatting 7.1.1. Old string formatting 7.2. Reading and Writing Files 7.2.1. Methods of File Objects 7.2.2. Saving structured data with json 8. Errors and Exceptions 8.1. Syntax Errors 8.2. Exceptions 8.3. Handling Exceptions 8.4. Raising Exceptions 8.5. User-defined Exceptions 8.6. Defining Clean-up Actions 8.7. Predefined Clean-up Actions 9. Classes 9.1. A Word About Names and Objects 9.2. Python Scopes and Namespaces 9.2.1. Scopes and Namespaces Example 9.3. A First Look at Classes 9.3.1. Class Definition Syntax 9.3.2. Class Objects 9.3.3. Instance Objects 9.3.4. Method Objects 9.3.5. Class and Instance Variables 9.4. Random Remarks 9.5. Inheritance 9.5.1. Multiple Inheritance 9.6. Private Variables 9.7. Odds and Ends 9.8. Iterators 9.9. Generators 9.10. Generator Expressions 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library 10.1. Operating System Interface 10.2. File Wildcards 10.3. Command Line Arguments 10.4. Error Output Redirection and Program Termination 10.5. String Pattern Matching 10.6. Mathematics 10.7. Internet Access 10.8. Dates and Times 10.9. Data Compression 10.10. Performance Measurement 10.11. Quality Control 10.12. Batteries Included 11. Brief Tour of the Standard Library — Part II 11.1. Output Formatting 11.2. Templating 11.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts 11.4. Multi-threading 11.5. Logging 11.6. Weak References 11.7. Tools for Working with Lists 11.8. Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic 12. Virtual Environments and Packages 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Creating Virtual Environments 12.3. Managing Packages with pip 13. What Now? 14. Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution 14.1. Tab Completion and History Editing 14.2. Alternatives to the Interactive Interpreter 15. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations 15.1. Representation Error 16. Appendix 16.1. Interactive Mode 16.1.1. Error Handling 16.1.2. Executable Python Scripts 16.1.3. The Interactive Startup File 16.1.4. The Customization Modules Python Setup and Usage 1. Command line and environment 1.1. Command line 1.1.1. Interface options 1.1.2. Generic options 1.1.3. Miscellaneous options 1.1.4. Options you shouldn’t use 1.2. Environment variables 1.2.1. Debug-mode variables 2. Using Python on Unix platforms 2.1. Getting and installing the latest version of Python 2.1.1. On Linux 2.1.2. On FreeBSD and OpenBSD 2.1.3. On OpenSolaris 2.2. Building Python 2.3. Python-related paths and files 2.4. Miscellaneous 2.5. Editors and IDEs 3. Using Python on Windows 3.1. Installing Python 3.1.1. Supported Versions 3.1.2. Installation Steps 3.1.3. Removing the MAX_PATH Limitation 3.1.4. Installing Without UI 3.1.5. Installing Without Downloading 3.1.6. Modifying an install 3.1.7. Other Platforms 3.2. Alternative bundles 3.3. Configuring Python 3.3.1. Excursus: Setting environment variables 3.3.2. Finding the Python executable 3.4. Python Launcher for Windows 3.4.1. Getting started From the command-line Virtual environments From a script From file associations 3.4.2. Shebang Lines 3.4.3. Arguments in shebang lines 3.4.4. Customization Customization via INI files Customizing default Python versions 3.4.5. Diagnostics 3.5. Finding modules 3.6. Additional modules 3.6.1. PyWin32 3.6.2. cx_Freeze 3.6.3. WConio 3.7. Compiling Python on Windows 3.8. Embedded Distribution 3.8.1. Python Application 3.8.2. Embedding Python 3.9. Other resources 4. Using Python on a Macintosh 4.1. Getting and Installing MacPython 4.1.1. How to run a Python script 4.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI 4.1.3. Configuration 4.2. The IDE 4.3. Installing Additional Python Packages 4.4. GUI Programming on the Mac 4.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac 4.6. Other Resources The Python Language Reference 1. Introduction 1.1. Alternate Implementations 1.2. Notation 2. Lexical analysis 2.1. Line structure 2.1.1. Logical lines 2.1.2. Physical lines 2.1.3. Comments 2.1.4. Encoding declarations 2.1.5. Explicit line joining 2.1.6. Implicit line joining 2.1.7. Blank lines 2.1.8. Indentation 2.1.9. Whitespace between tokens 2.2. Other tokens 2.3. Identifiers and keywords 2.3.1. Keywords 2.3.2. Reserved classes of identifiers 2.4. Literals 2.4.1. String and Bytes literals 2.4.2. String literal concatenation 2.4.3. Formatted string literals 2.4.4. Numeric literals 2.4.5. Integer literals 2.4.6. Floating point literals 2.4.7. Imaginary literals 2.5. Operators 2.6. Delimiters 3. Data model 3.1. Objects, values and types 3.2. The standard type hierarchy 3.3. Special method names 3.3.1. Basic customization 3.3.2. Customizing attribute access Customizing module attribute access Implementing Descriptors Invoking Descriptors __slots__ Notes on using __slots__ 3.3.3. Customizing class creation Metaclasses Determining the appropriate metaclass Preparing the class namespace Executing the class body Creating the class object Metaclass example 3.3.4. Customizing instance and subclass checks 3.3.5. Emulating callable objects 3.3.6. Emulating container types 3.3.7. Emulating numeric types 3.3.8. With Statement Context Managers 3.3.9. Special method lookup 3.4. Coroutines 3.4.1. Awaitable Objects 3.4.2. Coroutine Objects 3.4.3. Asynchronous Iterators 3.4.4. Asynchronous Context Managers 4. Execution model 4.1. Structure of a program 4.2. Naming and binding 4.2.1. Binding of names 4.2.2. Resolution of names 4.2.3. Builtins and restricted execution 4.2.4. Interaction with dynamic features 4.3. Exceptions 5. The import system 5.1. importlib 5.2. Packages 5.2.1. Regular packages 5.2.2. Namespace packages 5.3. Searching 5.3.1. The module cache 5.3.2. Finders and loaders 5.3.3. Import hooks 5.3.4. The meta path 5.4. Loading 5.4.1. Loaders 5.4.2. Submodules 5.4.3. Module spec 5.4.4. Import-related module attributes 5.4.5. module.__path__ 5.4.6. Module reprs 5.5. The Path Based Finder 5.5.1. Path entry finders 5.5.2. Path entry finder protocol 5.6. Replacing the standard import system 5.7. Special considerations for __main__ 5.7.1. __main__.__spec__ 5.8. Open issues 5.9. References 6. Expressions 6.1. Arithmetic conversions 6.2. Atoms 6.2.1. Identifiers (Names) 6.2.2. Literals 6.2.3. Parenthesized forms 6.2.4. Displays for lists, sets and dictionaries 6.2.5. List displays 6.2.6. Set displays 6.2.7. Dictionary displays 6.2.8. Generator expressions 6.2.9. Yield expressions Generator-iterator methods Examples Asynchronous generator functions Asynchronous generator-iterator methods 6.3. Primaries 6.3.1. Attribute references 6.3.2. Subscriptions 6.3.3. Slicings 6.3.4. Calls 6.4. Await expression 6.5. The power operator 6.6. Unary arithmetic and bitwise operations 6.7. Binary arithmetic operations 6.8. Shifting operations 6.9. Binary bitwise operations 6.10. Comparisons 6.10.1. Value comparisons 6.10.2. Membership test operations 6.10.3. Identity comparisons 6.11. Boolean operations 6.12. Conditional expressions 6.13. Lambdas 6.14. Expression lists 6.15. Evaluation order 6.16. Operator precedence 7. Simple statements 7.1. Expression statements 7.2. Assignment statements 7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements 7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements 7.3. The assert statement 7.4. The pass statement 7.5. The del statement 7.6. The return statement 7.7. The yield statement 7.8. The raise statement 7.9. The break statement 7.10. The continue statement 7.11. The import statement 7.11.1. Future statements 7.12. The global statement 7.13. The nonlocal statement 8. Compound statements 8.1. The if statement 8.2. The while statement 8.3. The for statement 8.4. The try statement 8.5. The with statement 8.6. Function definitions 8.7. Class definitions 8.8. Coroutines 8.8.1. Coroutine function definition 8.8.2. The async for statement 8.8.3. The async with statement 9. Top-level components 9.1. Complete Python programs 9.2. File input 9.3. Interactive input 9.4. Expression input 10. Full Grammar specification The Python Standard Library 1. Introduction 2. Built-in Functions 3. Built-in Constants 3.1. Constants added by the site module 4. Built-in Types 4.1. Truth Value Testing 4.2. Boolean Operations — and, or, not 4.3. Comparisons 4.4. Numeric Types — int, float, complex 4.4.1. Bitwise Operations on Integer Types 4.4.2. Additional Methods on Integer Types 4.4.3. Additional Methods on Float 4.4.4. Hashing of numeric types 4.5. Iterator Types 4.5.1. Generator Types 4.6. Sequence Types — list, tuple, range 4.6.1. Common Sequence Operations 4.6.2. Immutable Sequence Types 4.6.3. Mutable Sequence Types 4.6.4. Lists 4.6.5. Tuples 4.6.6. Ranges 4.7. Text Sequence Type — str 4.7.1. String Methods 4.7.2. printf-style String Formatting 4.8. Binary Sequence Types — bytes, bytearray, memoryview 4.8.1. Bytes Objects 4.8.2. Bytearray Objects 4.8.3. Bytes and Bytearray Operations 4.8.4. printf-style Bytes Formatting 4.8.5. Memory Views 4.9. Set Types — set, frozenset 4.10. Mapping Types — dict 4.10.1. Dictionary view objects 4.11. Context Manager Types 4.12. Other Built-in Types 4.12.1. Modules 4.12.2. Classes and Class Instances 4.12.3. Functions 4.12.4. Methods 4.12.5. Code Objects 4.12.6. Type Objects 4.12.7. The Null Object 4.12.8. The Ellipsis Object 4.12.9. The NotImplemented Object 4.12.10. Boolean Values 4.12.11. Internal Objects 4.13. Special Attributes 5. Built-in Exceptions 5.1. Base classes 5.2. Concrete exceptions 5.2.1. OS exceptions 5.3. Warnings 5.4. Exception hierarchy 6. Text Processing Services 6.1. string — Common string operations 6.1.1. String constants 6.1.2. Custom String Formatting 6.1.3. Format String Syntax Format Specification Mini-Language Format examples 6.1.4. Template strings 6.1.5. Helper functions 6.2. re — Regular expression operations 6.2.1. Regular Expression Syntax 6.2.2. Module Contents 6.2.3. Regular Expression Objects 6.2.4. Match Objects 6.2.5. Regular Expression Examples Checking for a Pair Simulating scanf() search() vs. match() Making a Phonebook Text Munging Finding all Adverbs Finding all Adverbs and their Positions Raw String Notation Writing a Tokenizer 6.3. difflib — Helpers for computing deltas 6.3.1. SequenceMatcher Objects 6.3.2. SequenceMatcher Examples 6.3.3. Differ Objects 6.3.4. Differ Example 6.3.5. A command-line interface to difflib 6.4. textwrap — Text wrapping and filling 6.5. unicodedata — Unicode Database 6.6. stringprep — Internet String Preparation 6.7. readline — GNU readline interface 6.7.1. Init file 6.7.2. Line buffer 6.7.3. History file 6.7.4. History list 6.7.5. Startup hooks 6.7.6. Completion 6.7.7. Example 6.8. rlcompleter — Completion function for GNU readline 6.8.1. Completer Objects 7. Binary Data Services 7.1. struct — Interpret bytes as packed binary data 7.1.1. Functions and Exceptions 7.1.2. Format Strings Byte Order, Size, and Alignment Format Characters Examples 7.1.3. Classes 7.2. codecs — Codec registry and base classes 7.2.1. Codec Base Classes Error Handlers Stateless Encoding and Decoding Incremental Encoding and Decoding IncrementalEncoder Objects IncrementalDecoder Objects Stream Encoding and Decoding StreamWriter Objects StreamReader Objects StreamReaderWriter Objects StreamRecoder Objects 7.2.2. Encodings and Unicode 7.2.3. Standard Encodings 7.2.4. Python Specific Encodings Text Encodings Binary Transforms Text Transforms 7.2.5. encodings.idna — Internationalized Domain Names in Applications 7.2.6. encodings.mbcs — Windows ANSI codepage 7.2.7. encodings.utf_8_sig — UTF-8 codec with BOM signature 8. Data Types 8.1. datetime — Basic date and time types 8.1.1. Available Types 8.1.2. timedelta Objects 8.1.3. date Objects 8.1.4. datetime Objects 8.1.5. time Objects 8.1.6. tzinfo Objects 8.1.7. timezone Objects 8.1.8. strftime() and strptime() Behavior 8.2. calendar — General calendar-related functions 8.3. collections — Container datatypes 8.3.1. ChainMap objects ChainMap Examples and Recipes 8.3.2. Counter objects 8.3.3. deque objects deque Recipes 8.3.4. defaultdict objects defaultdict Examples 8.3.5. namedtuple() Factory Function for Tuples with Named Fields 8.3.6. OrderedDict objects OrderedDict Examples and Recipes 8.3.7. UserDict objects 8.3.8. UserList objects 8.3.9. UserString objects 8.4. — Abstract Base Classes for Containers 8.4.1. Collections Abstract Base Classes 8.5. heapq — Heap queue algorithm 8.5.1. Basic Examples 8.5.2. Priority Queue Implementation Notes 8.5.3. Theory 8.6. bisect — Array bisection algorithm 8.6.1. Searching Sorted Lists 8.6.2. Other Examples 8.7. array — Efficient arrays of numeric values 8.8. weakref — Weak references 8.8.1. Weak Reference Objects 8.8.2. Example 8.8.3. Finalizer Objects 8.8.4. Comparing finalizers with __del__() methods 8.9. types — Dynamic type creation and names for built-in types 8.9.1. Dynamic Type Creation 8.9.2. Standard Interpreter Types 8.9.3. Additional Utility Classes and Functions 8.9.4. Coroutine Utility Functions 8.10. copy — Shallow and deep copy operations 8.11. pprint — Data pretty printer 8.11.1. PrettyPrinter Objects 8.11.2. Example 8.12. reprlib — Alternate repr() implementation 8.12.1. Repr Objects 8.12.2. Subclassing Repr Objects 8.13. enum — Support for enumerations 8.13.1. Module Contents 8.13.2. Creating an Enum 8.13.3. Programmatic access to enumeration members and their attributes 8.13.4. Duplicating enum members and values 8.13.5. Ensuring unique enumeration values 8.13.6. Using automatic values 8.13.7. Iteration 8.13.8. Comparisons 8.13.9. Allowed members and attributes of enumerations 8.13.10. Restricted subclassing of enumerations 8.13.11. Pickling 8.13.12. Functional API 8.13.13. Derived Enumerations IntEnum IntFlag Flag Others 8.13.14. Interesting examples Omitting values Using auto Using object Using a descriptive string Using a custom __new__() OrderedEnum DuplicateFreeEnum Planet 8.13.15. How are Enums different? Enum Classes Enum Members (aka instances) Finer Points Supported __dunder__ names Supported _sunder_ names Enum member type Boolean value of Enum classes and members Enum classes with methods Combining members of Flag 9. Numeric and Mathematical Modules 9.1. numbers — Numeric abstract base classes 9.1.1. The numeric tower 9.1.2. Notes for type implementors Adding More Numeric ABCs Implementing the arithmetic operations 9.2. math — Mathematical functions 9.2.1. Number-theoretic and representation functions 9.2.2. Power and logarithmic functions 9.2.3. Trigonometric functions 9.2.4. Angular conversion 9.2.5. Hyperbolic functions 9.2.6. Special functions 9.2.7. Constants 9.3. cmath — Mathematical functions for complex numbers 9.3.1. Conversions to and from polar coordinates 9.3.2. Power and logarithmic functions 9.3.3. Trigonometric functions 9.3.4. Hyperbolic functions 9.3.5. Classification functions 9.3.6. Constants 9.4. decimal — Decimal fixed point and floating point arithmetic 9.4.1. Quick-start Tutorial 9.4.2. Decimal objects Logical operands 9.4.3. Context objects 9.4.4. Constants 9.4.5. Rounding modes 9.4.6. Signals 9.4.7. Floating Point Notes Mitigating round-off error with increased precision Special values 9.4.8. Working with threads 9.4.9. Recipes 9.4.10. Decimal FAQ 9.5. fractions — Rational numbers 9.6. random — Generate pseudo-random numbers 9.6.1. Bookkeeping functions 9.6.2. Functions for integers 9.6.3. Functions for sequences 9.6.4. Real-valued distributions 9.6.5. Alternative Generator 9.6.6. Notes on Reproducibility 9.6.7. Examples and Recipes 9.7. statistics — Mathematical statistics functions 9.7.1. Averages and measures of central location 9.7.2. Measures of spread 9.7.3. Function details 9.7.4. Exceptions 10. Functional Programming Modules 10.1. itertools — Functions creating iterators for efficient looping 10.1.1. Itertool functions 10.1.2. Itertools Recipes 10.2. functools — Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects 10.2.1. partial Objects 10.3. operator — Standard operators as functions 10.3.1. Mapping Operators to Functions 10.3.2. Inplace Operators 11. File and Directory Access 11.1. pathlib — Object-oriented filesystem paths 11.1.1. Basic use 11.1.2. Pure paths General properties Operators Accessing individual parts Methods and properties 11.1.3. Concrete paths Methods 11.2. os.path — Common pathname manipulations 11.3. fileinput — Iterate over lines from multiple input streams 11.4. stat — Interpreting stat() results 11.5. filecmp — File and Directory Comparisons 11.5.1. The dircmp class 11.6. tempfile — Generate temporary files and directories 11.6.1. Examples 11.6.2. Deprecated functions and variables 11.7. glob — Unix style pathname pattern expansion 11.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching 11.9. linecache — Random access to text lines 11.10. shutil — High-level file operations 11.10.1. Directory and files operations copytree example rmtree example 11.10.2. Archiving operations Archiving example 11.10.3. Querying the size of the output terminal 11.11. macpath — Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions 12. Data Persistence 12.1. pickle — Python object serialization 12.1.1. Relationship to other Python modules Comparison with marshal Comparison with json 12.1.2. Data stream format 12.1.3. Module Interface 12.1.4. What can be pickled and unpickled? 12.1.5. Pickling Class Instances Persistence of External Objects Dispatch Tables Handling Stateful Objects 12.1.6. Restricting Globals 12.1.7. Performance 12.1.8. Examples 12.2. copyreg — Register pickle support functions 12.2.1. Example 12.3. shelve — Python object persistence 12.3.1. Restrictions 12.3.2. Example 12.4. marshal — Internal Python object serialization 12.5. dbm — Interfaces to Unix “databases” 12.5.1. dbm.gnu — GNU’s reinterpretation of dbm 12.5.2. dbm.ndbm — Interface based on ndbm 12.5.3. dbm.dumb — Portable DBM implementation 12.6. sqlite3 — DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases 12.6.1. Module functions and constants 12.6.2. Connection Objects 12.6.3. Cursor Objects 12.6.4. Row Objects 12.6.5. Exceptions 12.6.6. SQLite and Python types Introduction Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases Letting your object adapt itself Registering an adapter callable Converting SQLite values to custom Python types Default adapters and converters 12.6.7. Controlling Transactions 12.6.8. Using sqlite3 efficiently Using shortcut methods Accessing columns by name instead of by index Using the connection as a context manager 12.6.9. Common issues Multithreading 13. Data Compression and Archiving 13.1. zlib — Compression compatible with gzip 13.2. gzip — Support for gzip files 13.2.1. Examples of usage 13.3. bz2 — Support for bzip2 compression 13.3.1. (De)compression of files 13.3.2. Incremental (de)compression 13.3.3. One-shot (de)compression 13.4. lzma — Compression using the LZMA algorithm 13.4.1. Reading and writing compressed files 13.4.2. Compressing and decompressing data in memory 13.4.3. Miscellaneous 13.4.4. Specifying custom filter chains 13.4.5. Examples 13.5. zipfile — Work with ZIP archives 13.5.1. ZipFile Objects 13.5.2. PyZipFile Objects 13.5.3. ZipInfo Objects 13.5.4. Command-Line Interface Command-line options 13.6. tarfile — Read and write tar archive files 13.6.1. TarFile Objects 13.6.2. TarInfo Objects 13.6.3. Command-Line Interface Command-line options 13.6.4. Examples 13.6.5. Supported tar formats 13.6.6. Unicode issues 14. File Formats 14.1. csvCSV File Reading and Writing 14.1.1. Module Contents 14.1.2. Dialects and Formatting Parameters 14.1.3. Reader Objects 14.1.4. Writer Objects 14.1.5. Examples 14.2. configparser — Configuration file parser 14.2.1. Quick Start 14.2.2. Supported Datatypes 14.2.3. Fallback Values 14.2.4. Supported INI File Structure 14.2.5. Interpolation of values 14.2.6. Mapping Protocol Access 14.2.7. Customizing Parser Behaviour 14.2.8. Legacy API Examples 14.2.9. ConfigParser Objects 14.2.10. RawConfigParser Objects 14.2.11. Exceptions 14.3. netrc — netrc file processing 14.3.1. netrc Objects 14.4. xdrlib — Encode and decode XDR data 14.4.1. Packer Objects 14.4.2. Unpacker Objects 14.4.3. Exceptions 14.5. plistlib — Generate and parse Mac OS X .plist files 14.5.1. Examples 15. Cryptographic Services 15.1. hashlib — Secure hashes and message digests 15.1.1. Hash algorithms 15.1.2. SHAKE variable length digests 15.1.3. Key derivation 15.1.4. BLAKE2 Creating hash objects Constants Examples Simple hashing Using different digest sizes Keyed hashing Randomized hashing Personalization Tree mode Credits 15.2. hmac — Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication 15.3. secrets — Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets 15.3.1. Random numbers 15.3.2. Generating tokens How many bytes should tokens use? 15.3.3. Other functions 15.3.4. Recipes and best practices 16. Generic Operating System Services 16.1. os — Miscellaneous operating system interfaces 16.1.1. File Names, Command Line Arguments, and Environment Variables 16.1.2. Process Parameters 16.1.3. File Object Creation 16.1.4. File Descriptor Operations Querying the size of a terminal Inheritance of File Descriptors 16.1.5. Files and Directories Linux extended attributes 16.1.6. Process Management 16.1.7. Interface to the scheduler 16.1.8. Miscellaneous System Information 16.1.9. Random numbers 16.2. io — Core tools for working with streams 16.2.1. Overview Text I/O Binary I/O Raw I/O 16.2.2. High-level Module Interface In-memory streams 16.2.3. Class hierarchy I/O Base Classes Raw File I/O Buffered Streams Text I/O 16.2.4. Performance Binary I/O Text I/O Multi-threading Reentrancy 16.3. time — Time access and conversions 16.3.1. Functions 16.3.2. Clock ID Constants 16.3.3. Timezone Constants 16.4. argparse — Parser for command-line options, arguments and sub-commands 16.4.1. Example Creating a parser Adding arguments Parsing arguments 16.4.2. ArgumentParser objects prog usage description epilog parents formatter_class prefix_chars fromfile_prefix_chars argument_default allow_abbrev conflict_handler add_help 16.4.3. The add_argument() method name or flags action nargs const default type choices required help metavar dest Action classes 16.4.4. The parse_args() method Option value syntax Invalid arguments Arguments containing - Argument abbreviations (prefix matching) Beyond sys.argv The Namespace object 16.4.5. Other utilities Sub-commands FileType objects Argument groups Mutual exclusion Parser defaults Printing help Partial parsing Customizing file parsing Exiting methods 16.4.6. Upgrading optparse code 16.5. getopt — C-style parser for command line options 16.6. logging — Logging facility for Python 16.6.1. Logger Objects 16.6.2. Logging Levels 16.6.3. Handler Objects 16.6.4. Formatter Objects 16.6.5. Filter Objects 16.6.6. LogRecord Objects 16.6.7. LogRecord attributes 16.6.8. LoggerAdapter Objects 16.6.9. Thread Safety 16.6.10. Module-Level Functions 16.6.11. Module-Level Attributes 16.6.12. Integration with the warnings module 16.7. logging.config — Logging configuration 16.7.1. Configuration functions 16.7.2. Configuration dictionary schema Dictionary Schema Details Incremental Configuration Object connections User-defined objects Access to external objects Access to internal objects Import resolution and custom importers 16.7.3. Configuration file format 16.8. logging.handlers — Logging handlers 16.8.1. StreamHandler 16.8.2. FileHandler 16.8.3. NullHandler 16.8.4. WatchedFileHandler 16.8.5. BaseRotatingHandler 16.8.6. RotatingFileHandler 16.8.7. TimedRotatingFileHandler 16.8.8. SocketHandler 16.8.9. DatagramHandler 16.8.10. SysLogHandler 16.8.11. NTEventLogHandler 16.8.12. SMTPHandler 16.8.13. MemoryHandler 16.8.14. HTTPHandler 16.8.15. QueueHandler 16.8.16. QueueListener 16.9. getpass — Portable password input 16.10. curses — Terminal handling for character-cell displays 16.10.1. Functions 16.10.2. Window Objects 16.10.3. Constants 16.11. curses.textpad — Text input widget for curses programs 16.11.1. Textbox objects 16.12. curses.ascii — Utilities for ASCII characters 16.13. curses.panel — A panel stack extension for curses 16.13.1. Functions 16.13.2. Panel Objects 16.14. platform — Access to underlying platform’s identifying data 16.14.1. Cross Platform 16.14.2. Java Platform 16.14.3. Windows Platform Win95/98 specific 16.14.4. Mac OS Platform 16.14.5. Unix Platforms 16.15. errno — Standard errno system symbols 16.16. ctypes — A foreign function library for Python 16.16.1. ctypes tutorial Loading dynamic link libraries Accessing functions from loaded dlls Calling functions Fundamental data types Calling functions, continued Calling functions with your own custom data types Specifying the required argument types (function prototypes) Return types Passing pointers (or: passing parameters by reference) Structures and unions Structure/union alignment and byte order Bit fields in structures and unions Arrays Pointers Type conversions Incomplete Types Callback functions Accessing values exported from dlls Surprises Variable-sized data types 16.16.2. ctypes reference Finding shared libraries Loading shared libraries Foreign functions Function prototypes Utility functions Data types Fundamental data types Structured data types Arrays and pointers 17. Concurrent Execution 17.1. threading — Thread-based parallelism 17.1.1. Thread-Local Data 17.1.2. Thread Objects 17.1.3. Lock Objects 17.1.4. RLock Objects 17.1.5. Condition Objects 17.1.6. Semaphore Objects Semaphore Example 17.1.7. Event Objects 17.1.8. Timer Objects 17.1.9. Barrier Objects 17.1.10. Using locks, conditions, and semaphores in the with statement 17.2. multiprocessing — Process-based parallelism 17.2.1. Introduction The Process class Contexts and start methods Exchanging objects between processes Synchronization between processes Sharing state between processes Using a pool of workers 17.2.2. Reference Process and exceptions Pipes and Queues Miscellaneous Connection Objects Synchronization primitives Shared ctypes Objects The multiprocessing.sharedctypes module Managers Customized managers Using a remote manager Proxy Objects Cleanup Process Pools Listeners and Clients Address Formats Authentication keys Logging The multiprocessing.dummy module 17.2.3. Programming guidelines All start methods The spawn and forkserver start methods 17.2.4. Examples 17.3. The concurrent package 17.4. concurrent.futures — Launching parallel tasks 17.4.1. Executor Objects 17.4.2. ThreadPoolExecutor ThreadPoolExecutor Example 17.4.3. ProcessPoolExecutor ProcessPoolExecutor Example 17.4.4. Future Objects 17.4.5. Module Functions 17.4.6. Exception classes 17.5. subprocess — Subprocess management 17.5.1. Using the subprocess Module Frequently Used Arguments Popen Constructor Exceptions 17.5.2. Security Considerations 17.5.3. Popen Objects 17.5.4. Windows Popen Helpers Constants 17.5.5. Older high-level API 17.5.6. Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module Replacing /bin/sh shell backquote Replacing shell pipeline Replacing os.system() Replacing the os.spawn family Replacing os.popen(), os.popen2(), os.popen3() Replacing functions from the popen2 module 17.5.7. Legacy Shell Invocation Functions 17.5.8. Notes Converting an argument sequence to a string on Windows 17.6. sched — Event scheduler 17.6.1. Scheduler Objects 17.7. queue — A synchronized queue class 17.7.1. Queue Objects 17.8. dummy_threading — Drop-in replacement for the threading module 17.9. _thread — Low-level threading API 17.10. _dummy_thread — Drop-in replacement for the _thread module 18. Interprocess Communication and Networking 18.1. socket — Low-level networking interface 18.1.1. Socket families 18.1.2. Module contents Exceptions Constants Functions Creating sockets Other functions 18.1.3. Socket Objects 18.1.4. Notes on socket timeouts Timeouts and the connect method Timeouts and the accept method 18.1.5. Example 18.2. ssl — TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects 18.2.1. Functions, Constants, and Exceptions Socket creation Context creation Random generation Certificate handling Constants 18.2.2. SSL Sockets 18.2.3. SSL Contexts 18.2.4. Certificates Certificate chains CA certificates Combined key and certificate Self-signed certificates 18.2.5. Examples Testing for SSL support Client-side operation Server-side operation 18.2.6. Notes on non-blocking sockets 18.2.7. Memory BIO Support 18.2.8. SSL session 18.2.9. Security considerations Best defaults Manual settings Verifying certificates Protocol versions Cipher selection Multi-processing 18.2.10. LibreSSL support 18.3. select — Waiting for I/O completion 18.3.1. /dev/poll Polling Objects 18.3.2. Edge and Level Trigger Polling (epoll) Objects 18.3.3. Polling Objects 18.3.4. Kqueue Objects 18.3.5. Kevent Objects 18.4. selectors — High-level I/O multiplexing 18.4.1. Introduction 18.4.2. Classes 18.4.3. Examples 18.5. asyncio — Asynchronous I/O, event loop, coroutines and tasks 18.5.1. Base Event Loop Run an event loop Calls Delayed calls Futures Tasks Creating connections Creating listening connections Watch file descriptors Low-level socket operations Resolve host name Connect pipes UNIX signals Executor Error Handling API Debug mode Server Handle Event loop examples Hello World with call_soon() Display the current date with call_later() Watch a file descriptor for read events Set signal handlers for SIGINT and SIGTERM 18.5.2. Event loops Event loop functions Available event loops Platform support Windows Mac OS X Event loop policies and the default policy Event loop policy interface Access to the global loop policy Customizing the event loop policy 18.5.3. Tasks and coroutines Coroutines Example: Hello World coroutine Example: Coroutine displaying the current date Example: Chain coroutines InvalidStateError TimeoutError Future Example: Future with run_until_complete() Example: Future with run_forever() Task Example: Parallel execution of tasks Task functions 18.5.4. Transports and protocols (callback based API) Transports BaseTransport ReadTransport WriteTransport DatagramTransport BaseSubprocessTransport Protocols Protocol classes Connection callbacks Streaming protocols Datagram protocols Flow control callbacks Coroutines and protocols Protocol examples TCP echo client protocol TCP echo server protocol UDP echo client protocol UDP echo server protocol Register an open socket to wait for data using a protocol 18.5.5. Streams (coroutine based API) Stream functions StreamReader StreamWriter StreamReaderProtocol IncompleteReadError LimitOverrunError Stream examples TCP echo client using streams TCP echo server using streams Get HTTP headers Register an open socket to wait for data using streams 18.5.6. Subprocess Windows event loop Create a subprocess: high-level API using Process Create a subprocess: low-level API using subprocess.Popen Constants Process Subprocess and threads Subprocess examples Subprocess using transport and protocol Subprocess using streams 18.5.7. Synchronization primitives Locks Lock Event Condition Semaphores Semaphore BoundedSemaphore 18.5.8. Queues Queue PriorityQueue LifoQueue Exceptions 18.5.9. Develop with asyncio Debug mode of asyncio Cancellation Concurrency and multithreading Handle blocking functions correctly Logging Detect coroutine objects never scheduled Detect exceptions never consumed Chain coroutines correctly Pending task destroyed Close transports and event loops 18.6. asyncore — Asynchronous socket handler 18.6.1. asyncore Example basic HTTP client 18.6.2. asyncore Example basic echo server 18.7. asynchat — Asynchronous socket command/response handler 18.7.1. asynchat Example 18.8. signal — Set handlers for asynchronous events 18.8.1. General rules Execution of Python signal handlers Signals and threads 18.8.2. Module contents 18.8.3. Example 18.9. mmap — Memory-mapped file support 19. Internet Data Handling 19.1. email — An email and MIME handling package 19.1.1. email.message: Representing an email message 19.1.2. email.parser: Parsing email messages FeedParser API Parser API Additional notes 19.1.3. email.generator: Generating MIME documents 19.1.4. email.policy: Policy Objects 19.1.5. email.errors: Exception and Defect classes 19.1.6. email.headerregistry: Custom Header Objects 19.1.7. email.contentmanager: Managing MIME Content Content Manager Instances 19.1.8. email: Examples 19.1.9. email.message.Message: Representing an email message using the compat32 API 19.1.10. email.mime: Creating email and MIME objects from scratch 19.1.11. email.header: Internationalized headers 19.1.12. email.charset: Representing character sets 19.1.13. email.encoders: Encoders 19.1.14. email.utils: Miscellaneous utilities 19.1.15. email.iterators: Iterators 19.2. json — JSON encoder and decoder 19.2.1. Basic Usage 19.2.2. Encoders and Decoders 19.2.3. Exceptions 19.2.4. Standard Compliance and Interoperability Character Encodings Infinite and NaN Number Values Repeated Names Within an Object Top-level Non-Object, Non-Array Values Implementation Limitations 19.2.5. Command Line Interface Command line options 19.3. mailcap — Mailcap file handling 19.4. mailbox — Manipulate mailboxes in various formats 19.4.1. Mailbox objects Maildir mbox MH Babyl MMDF 19.4.2. Message objects MaildirMessage mboxMessage MHMessage BabylMessage MMDFMessage 19.4.3. Exceptions 19.4.4. Examples 19.5. mimetypes — Map filenames to MIME types 19.5.1. MimeTypes Objects 19.6. base64 — Base16, Base32, Base64, Base85 Data Encodings 19.7. binhex — Encode and decode binhex4 files 19.7.1. Notes 19.8. binascii — Convert between binary and ASCII 19.9. quopri — Encode and decode MIME quoted-printable data 19.10. uu — Encode and decode uuencode files 20. Structured Markup Processing Tools 20.1. html — HyperText Markup Language support 20.2. html.parser — Simple HTML and XHTML parser 20.2.1. Example HTML Parser Application 20.2.2. HTMLParser Methods 20.2.3. Examples 20.3. html.entities — Definitions of HTML general entities 20.4. XML Processing Modules 20.4.1. XML vulnerabilities 20.4.2. The defusedxml and defusedexpat Packages 20.5. xml.etree.ElementTree — The ElementTree XML API 20.5.1. Tutorial XML tree and elements Parsing XML Pull API for non-blocking parsing Finding interesting elements Modifying an XML File Building XML documents Parsing XML with Namespaces Additional resources 20.5.2. XPath support Example Supported XPath syntax 20.5.3. Reference Functions Element Objects ElementTree Objects QName Objects TreeBuilder Objects XMLParser Objects XMLPullParser Objects Exceptions 20.6. xml.dom — The Document Object Model API 20.6.1. Module Contents 20.6.2. Objects in the DOM DOMImplementation Objects Node Objects NodeList Objects DocumentType Objects Document Objects Element Objects Attr Objects NamedNodeMap Objects Comment Objects Text and CDATASection Objects ProcessingInstruction Objects Exceptions 20.6.3. Conformance Type Mapping Accessor Methods 20.7. xml.dom.minidom — Minimal DOM implementation 20.7.1. DOM Objects 20.7.2. DOM Example 20.7.3. minidom and the DOM standard 20.8. xml.dom.pulldom — Support for building partial DOM trees 20.8.1. DOMEventStream Objects 20.9. xml.sax — Support for SAX2 parsers 20.9.1. SAXException Objects 20.10. xml.sax.handler — Base classes for SAX handlers 20.10.1. ContentHandler Objects 20.10.2. DTDHandler Objects 20.10.3. EntityResolver Objects 20.10.4. ErrorHandler Objects 20.11. xml.sax.saxutils — SAX Utilities 20.12. xml.sax.xmlreader — Interface for XML parsers 20.12.1. XMLReader Objects 20.12.2. IncrementalParser Objects 20.12.3. Locator Objects 20.12.4. InputSource Objects 20.12.5. The Attributes Interface 20.12.6. The AttributesNS Interface 20.13. xml.parsers.expat — Fast XML parsing using Expat 20.13.1. XMLParser Objects 20.13.2. ExpatError Exceptions 20.13.3. Example 20.13.4. Content Model Descriptions 20.13.5. Expat error constants 21. Internet Protocols and Support 21.1. webbrowser — Convenient Web-browser controller 21.1.1. Browser Controller Objects 21.2. cgi — Common Gateway Interface support 21.2.1. Introduction 21.2.2. Using the cgi module 21.2.3. Higher Level Interface 21.2.4. Functions 21.2.5. Caring about security 21.2.6. Installing your CGI script on a Unix system 21.2.7. Testing your CGI script 21.2.8. Debugging CGI scripts 21.2.9. Common problems and solutions 21.3. cgitb — Traceback manager for CGI scripts 21.4. wsgiref — WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation 21.4.1. wsgiref.util – WSGI environment utilities 21.4.2. wsgiref.headers – WSGI response header tools 21.4.3. wsgiref.simple_server – a simple WSGI HTTP server 21.4.4. wsgiref.validate — WSGI conformance checker 21.4.5. wsgiref.handlers – server/gateway base classes 21.4.6. Examples 21.5. urllib — URL handling modules 21.6. urllib.request — Extensible library for opening URLs 21.6.1. Request Objects 21.6.2. OpenerDirector Objects 21.6.3. BaseHandler Objects 21.6.4. HTTPRedirectHandler Objects 21.6.5. HTTPCookieProcessor Objects 21.6.6. ProxyHandler Objects 21.6.7. HTTPPasswordMgr Objects 21.6.8. HTTPPasswordMgrWithPriorAuth Objects 21.6.9. AbstractBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.10. HTTPBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.11. ProxyBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.12. AbstractDigestAuthHandler Objects 21.6.13. HTTPDigestAuthHandler Objects 21.6.14. ProxyDigestAuthHandler Objects 21.6.15. HTTPHandler Objects 21.6.16. HTTPSHandler Objects 21.6.17. FileHandler Objects 21.6.18. DataHandler Objects 21.6.19. FTPHandler Objects 21.6.20. CacheFTPHandler Objects 21.6.21. UnknownHandler Objects 21.6.22. HTTPErrorProcessor Objects 21.6.23. Examples 21.6.24. Legacy interface 21.6.25. urllib.request Restrictions 21.7. urllib.response — Response classes used by urllib 21.8. urllib.parse — Parse URLs into components 21.8.1. URL Parsing 21.8.2. Parsing ASCII Encoded Bytes 21.8.3. Structured Parse Results 21.8.4. URL Quoting 21.9. urllib.error — Exception classes raised by urllib.request 21.10. urllib.robotparser — Parser for robots.txt 21.11. http — HTTP modules 21.11.1. HTTP status codes 21.12. http.client — HTTP protocol client 21.12.1. HTTPConnection Objects 21.12.2. HTTPResponse Objects 21.12.3. Examples 21.12.4. HTTPMessage Objects 21.13. ftplib — FTP protocol client 21.13.1. FTP Objects 21.13.2. FTP_TLS Objects 21.14. poplib — POP3 protocol client 21.14.1. POP3 Objects 21.14.2. POP3 Example 21.15. imaplib — IMAP4 protocol client 21.15.1. IMAP4 Objects 21.15.2. IMAP4 Example 21.16. nntplib — NNTP protocol client 21.16.1. NNTP Objects Attributes Methods 21.16.2. Utility functions 21.17. smtplib — SMTP protocol client 21.17.1. SMTP Objects 21.17.2. SMTP Example 21.18. smtpd — SMTP Server 21.18.1. SMTPServer Objects 21.18.2. DebuggingServer Objects 21.18.3. PureProxy Objects 21.18.4. MailmanProxy Objects 21.18.5. SMTPChannel Objects 21.19. telnetlib — Telnet client 21.19.1. Telnet Objects 21.19.2. Telnet Example 21.20. uuid — UUID objects according to RFC 4122 21.20.1. Example 21.21. socketserver — A framework for network servers 21.21.1. Server Creation Notes 21.21.2. Server Objects 21.21.3. Request Handler Objects 21.21.4. Examples socketserver.TCPServer Example socketserver.UDPServer Example Asynchronous Mixins 21.22. http.server — HTTP servers 21.23. http.cookies — HTTP state management 21.23.1. Cookie Objects 21.23.2. Morsel Objects 21.23.3. Example 21.24. http.cookiejar — Cookie handling for HTTP clients 21.24.1. CookieJar and FileCookieJar Objects 21.24.2. FileCookieJar subclasses and co-operation with web browsers 21.24.3. CookiePolicy Objects 21.24.4. DefaultCookiePolicy Objects 21.24.5. Cookie Objec
S7A驱动,7.20版本, Version history S7A OPC server and FIX driver for Siemens S7/S5 communication via Ethernet TCP/IP, MPI or Profibus Version 7.20 Date: 26.02.2007 Version history ================================================================================================================== Build 224 New Functions: Solved problems: - The setup program created a wrong e-doc link in Windows start menu. Now the proper link to S7A.CHM will be installed - From the S7A power tool it wasn't possible to open the online help file. Now it can be opened and also the context-sensitive help works properly. - When the signal conditioning function "S&M" was used for a byte value, the driver wrote wrong values to the PLC. Build 223 : New Functions: - The number of supported NetLinks has been increased from 4 to 64 - Communication error messages will be now displayed in the alarm history of iFIX. This helps to detect, trace and solve communication issues. - Support for MATRIX licence key added. This key does not require a special key driver. It simply needs a PC and a windows version which supports USB ports. - When using the driver in conjunction with NetLink adapter, the licensing now can take place by a license code in the NetLink. In this case a separate licence key (dongle) is not needed. Note: If the connection to the NetLink is disturbed, the driver starts in demo mode, because it can't read out the licence code. If afterwards the connection to the Netlink can be established, the driver automatically changes from demo mode to the licenced mode as long as the demo time has not yet expired. - Support for S7-200 with CP 243-1 was added. Solved problems: - Passing of invalid OPC Item IDs caused a memory leak of the driver's global memory. After the global memory was exhausted, the driver crashed. - Writing of string values failed when using hardware options NULLTERM or SPACEFILL - Wrong OPC timestamp occured when driver was running in NIO Simulation Mode - The driver could crash when the driver was stopped (either by hand or when the demo time was expired) and in the same moment the NetLink connection was disturbed. - Improvements on the seamless switching between primary and backup devices and vice versa. - The passing of invalid OPC Item IDs caused a memory leak in the driver's global memory. After the global memory was exhausted, the driver crashed. - The writing of strings failed when using the hardware options NULLTERM or SPACEFILL Build 222 : New Functions: - The driver can now be registered as a service with the local system account as the log-on account. For more information see the document "S7A_as_Service.PDF" on the installation CD . - The driver now switches "seamless" between primary and backup device and vice versa. Solved problems: - The field "Default Gateway" has been added to the NetLink's configuration property page - The string write from the OPC Server sometimes failed . This bug has been fixed - After driver uninstall, not all of the S7A-related registry entries were deleted. Now the registry will be completely cleaned from S7A registry entries after uninstall. - The Netlink module generated trace messages to debug window. These trace outputs has been removed. Build 221 : New Functions: - The information field "Runtime Mode" has been added to the system statistic display. This shows whether the driver is running in the demo mode or in the licenced mode (with a valid key). - New control tag: "!RuntimeMode:S7A". A digital (i.e. DI) or analog (i.e. AI) block with the I/O address "!RuntimeMode:S7A" delivers the value 0 (in the F_CV property), when the driver is running in the demo mode, or the value 1, when the driver has found a valid key, and therefore is licenced. This function is also available via the OPC server interface. The same item-ID address format has to be used as with the tag-I/O address, thus "!RuntimeMode:S7A" - The information field "Device in use" has been added to the device statistic display. This shows which device (primary or backup-device) is currently active. This state can also be requested via the "!switch" control tag. A digital (i.e. DI) or analog (i.e. AI) block with the I/O address "!switch: delivers the value 0, when the primary device is active and the value 1 when the backup device is active. For the place holder in the I/O address the logical name of the driver device, which is requested, must be entered . Example: "!switch:D11" delivers the state of the driver device with the name "D11". This function is also available via the OPC server interface. The same address format has to be used for the tag-I/O address as for the item-ID, thus "!switch:" - At the channel parameter dialog for the communicatiomn way "S7 TCP/IP" and "MPI/PB CIF", the combo box "Conn.Type" has been added, which now enables the selection of the connection types "PG", "OP" and "other". Until now, a PG connection was used. - In the device dialog of the communication way "MPI/PB CIF", the input fields "Rack:" and "slot no. of CPU" have been added. This extension now allows the connection to "external" Profibus- CPs (CP 342/443-5 or 343/443-5). The Profibus station address of the Profibus CP is stated in the MPI/PB address field. The rack and slot number of the S7-CPU must be stated in the corresponding fields. Please make sure that slot number of the CPU is entered and not of the Profibus-CP!! - The driver now supports the different date and time data types of the S7 PLC. See Topic "Hardware Options for OPC String and TX-Blocks to support S7 date and time data types" in the S7A online help for detailed information. Build 220 : Solved problems: - The own address of CIF50 MPI/PB communication way was limited to 31. Now the limit is 126. - Bug-fix in PG-PC Interface (CP5611) communication way. Device could be disabled from polling, after CP5611 sent a specific sequence of communication errors. Build 219 : Solved problems: Improvements and new functions: - New Parameter "Max Gap (Bytes)" on Setup parameter property page "Advanced". This parameter defines the maximum address gap between an existing and a new block at which the driver automatically appends the new block to the existing. If the address gap is greater, then the driver creates a new data block. This functionality is active, when the data block auto create option is set on. - New Radio Button selection "Show Window" on Setup parameter property page "Advanced" The driver automatically opens its window which shows trace log messages useful for trouble shooting, when the "Yes" Radio button is on. - New HTML Help Build 218 : Solved problems: - Problems with datablocks which have a length between 180 and 200 bytes. - Unsufficient exception handling in S7AMemory.Dll caused blocking of driver and all other clients (WSACTASK, Workspace, etc.) which reads data from the driver. - Error in MIX Read function could cause blocking of data blocks Build 217 : Solved problems: - In configurations with data blocks which have a primary rate of zero (as fast as possible), it sometimes happened that write requests were "stuck" in the write queue. - Sporadic locks of data blocks after the driver was switched from the primary device to the backup device Improvements and new functions: - Improved error and timeout handling on communication faults. The reply timeout on the device configuration page can no longer be configured. Instead it will be derived from the TCP/IP timeout value, configured on the channel configuration page. The value (in seconds) of reply timeout always is 1 second higher than the TCP/IP timeout. This ensures, that the logical read/write request (time-limited by reply timeout value) will not be cancelled (by timeout) before the physical request (time-limited by TCP/IP timeout value) is finished regulary or through the timeout. - The NIO Simulation mode has been expanded. If it is set "ON" the polling of data blocks will be disabled, due to which no communication errors will arise, as long as a PLC hardware is not connected to the driver. In this mode the iFix data base blocks reads the value of zero or respectively, the last value written to the driver`s output data area. - "!SyncPoll" and "!SyncSend" have been added to allow e.g. an EDA application to read/write a data block synchronously Build 216 : Solved problems: (06.06.05) - Reset of statistic counters failed Build 215 : Solved problems: (31.05.05) - An error in the OLE interface methods ReadValue ()and WriteValue() was corrected. These functions can now be used for example,within the Excel program, to access data block values. - Datablocks stopped polling after an 'unknown error' was returned by CP5611 Build 214 : Solved problems: - Syncronous reads/writes from concurrent OPC clients now work properly New function: - Performance has been improved, especially in configuration with a lot of short data blocks. - system, channel, driver and data block static display has been extended Build 213 : Solved problems: - No reconnect after the MPI/Profibus connection between CP5611 and the PLC was aborted. - S7ADRV.EXE could crash on Multi Processor Systems or Systems with Hyperthreading when error messages (e.g. "Unable to connect to MPI station") were put to driver's log window from different threads concurrently. Build 212 : Solved problems: - The AGLink error code -1268 (Unknown error message of the PLC) caused a blocking of the device. Now the device will be closed and re-opened to recover the error. - under very seldom conditions a AGLink error caused a crash of S7ADRV.EXE Build 211 : Solved problems: - Setup of TCP/IP parameters failed with error -510. Problem has been solved. - Problems in configurations with more than 8 devices within a channel have been solved - Import of CSV file from S7A Version 7.16 failed - Failed to read the AG State - Configuration of a backup IP address caused a driver crash when it tried to switch from primary to backup device Build 210 : New functions: - Communication way MPI/Profibus using Siemens CPs (CP5611, 5613) added - Communication way MPI/Profibus using Hilscher CIF50 PB added - Communication to "old" S5 series via TCP/IP added - The old Sentinel Keys will not supported any longer - Check Box "Disable comm alarming" in datablock configuration allows to suppress the COMM alarms of Tags which addresses a driver datablock which is in communication error state. - Now the OPC server is OPC DA 2.05 complient Build 210 : Solved problems: - Under Windows XP the driver crashed when the network cable was not connected to ethernet card and the driver started. - A communication error on a single device caused comm errors on all other devices of the channel Build 201 : Solved problems: - CSV Import/export works now even for the new communication ways. Build 200 : Solved problems: - Handle leakage when using asynchron read mode of OPC server. This problem was fixed by migration to OPC server toolkit version 7.20 New functions: - The driver now supports additional communication ways (serial adapter, NetLink adapter and Siemens CPs (eg. CP5611). It's no longer a pure TCP/IP driver but a general driver for Siemens S7 which allows to connect via TCP/IP, MPI bus or Profibus using different interface hardware (CPs). Build 128 : Solved problems: - In big configurations with a lot of data blocks when a data block has been written it took too long until this data block was read back. Thus between the write and the read the clients (OPC or FIX) read the old data. Now after a write the driver reads the data block priorized. Build 127 : Solved problems: - The addressing range for PLC's input area and output area has been extended from 0..255 bytes to 0..4095 bytes. Build 126 : Solved problems: - Errors in manual and automatic block write functions has been fixed Build 125 : Solved problems: - Very fast consecutive analog writes to the same data block caused a crash of the S7ADRV.EXE process. This problem has been solved. Build 124 : Solved problems: - Different communication problems has been solved. - Design of message passing to driver window has changed to prevent the driver dead locks which occored under a very seldom conditions. Build 123 : Solved problems: - Changing of the IP-Address while the driver was running had no effect. This problem has been solved. Build 122 : New functions: - Now the devices within a channel processing in parallel mode - Added "Bytes per Second" to device and channel statistics - Logging of read/write requests/responses into a log file is now configurable for individual data blocks. File logging can basically be switched on/off at register page "advanced" in power tool's setup screen. - This version is already prepared to support the S7T loadable database block which will allow to work with the S7 TIME and TIME_OF_DAY data types in iFIX database. - Shared memory management has been changed to fix problems with large configurations and multi processor systems. Solved problems: - In previous versions the S7 rack number had no effect. Now it will be mapped into the right bit positions of the "called TSAP" field when opening the ISO connection within the TCP connection. - An error in output simulations mode was fixed. - An error in auto creation of data blocks was fixed. Build 121 : Solved problems: - When the slot and rack number in the device setings has been changed, the new values wasn't used when the connection has been re-established. Now the change of these parameters take place immediately. Fixed wrong display of Transmitted and Received counters of mission control's driver statistics Build 120 : Solved problems: - The OPC Server now supports read/write of Control-Tags (eg. !Send or !PollRate). Address syntax is equal to Tag I/O Address within FIX-Database. - Driver doesn't work when a channel with 8 devices was configured Build 119 : Solved problems: - Timeout value of channel template was not stored, thus it had no effect when a new channel was added. - IP-Address of device template was not stored, thus it had no effect when a new device was added. - To avoid duplicate Connection Numbers in Driver Device config, now these Connection Numbers are assigned automatically. The "Connection No" Field in Powertool's device configuration dialog is no longer enabled for input but for displaying the assigned Connection Number. - The driver devices are now limited to 8 per channel. - When running S7A driver on W2K without hardlock key (Sentinel or HASP) the Power Tool displayed an exception message box and the driver didn't start in demo mode. This problem has been solved. Build 118 : New function: - Additionaly to the Rainbow Sentinel Key the driver now supports new Aladdin HASP Key. It detects either Sentinel or HASP Key. Solved problems: - The OPC Server now supports String addresses Build 117 : Solved problems: - Now the Input Data Area of S7 can be read. That was not possible in build version 115 and 116. - The I/O address in data base builder now accepts inputs of adresses without blank between data area identifier and adress index (e.g. D11:Q1.7 or D11:I10.0). - Under a certain condidtion the S7ADrv process runs into a deadlock situation This problem has been solved. Build 116 : Solved problems: - Now the switching between primary and backup device can be configured and used. If the communication to the primary device fails, the driver automatically switches to the device configured as backup device. If the connection to the backup device fails, it switches back to the primary device. The switching even can be done by "hand" using a DI Block with I/O address "!switch:. A F_CV value of 0 means primary device is active, F_CV value 1 means backup device is active. To change the active device just assign the corresponding value to blocks F_CV property. Build 115 : Solved problems: none New functions: - To make troubleshooting easier, the driver now allowes to log messages to a log file. To enable file logging, set the following registry key value to 1: "HKLM\Software\Intellution\Drivers\S7A\DriverDefaults\WriteLogToFile" By default this value is set to 0 which disables the file logging. The log file is named S7ADrv.log and located in the drivers default config file path. All messages dispatched to the driver server window will be logged in the file as well. Caution: The log file will "not" be deleted and re-created when driver starts. It's in the users responsibility to watch the size of the log file. If you enable the dispatching of debug level 1 to 3 messages, the log file can become a huge size in a short time!! Build 114 : Solved problems: - If SAC writes faster to the driver's image table than the driver can write to the PLC, after a while the write queue filled up to 100%. This version of the driver no longer queues write requests to PLC addresses which already in the queue, but uses the already queued request by just replacing the old write value by the new value. - In configurations with more than 1 channel, the driver sometimes crashed since This problem has been solved. - The Send and Receive counts in mission control was swapped. New functions: - Driver now runs with dongle RN-4BDNBH-B (S7A) and RN-4CKEBH-B (S7A+S7B) Build 113 : Solved problems: - Error in S7AMemory.dll caused problem in applications with very large configurations (where the shared memory "S7A_InputArea" exceeded 64k). The data type information stored in the Input Area was overwritten to WORD. Thus the SAC Task interpreted the block values always as an integer no matter what data type was set for the data block in power tool. New functions: - none Build 112 : Solved problems: - CSV File import now works fine - When choosed S7M 1.x compatible address syntax, the data type combo box was been set to a data type other that saved before. New functions: - The S7-TIME format now is supported. Use a TX-blocks and the data type identifier 'T' in the Tag's I/O address to address a double word which contains a value in S7-TIME format (e.g. D11.DB100.DBT 10). Write is also possible. Build 111 : Solved problems: - Sometimes the CPU load raised to 100% when writing values. - Read/write of the last byte of a data block failed. - Block write in manaul or auto mode failed - In data block statistics sreen sometimes "stats error windows" occured because some error codes could not be found in AGLink_Error.txt file. New functions: - none Build 110 : Solved problems: - none New functions: - Added hardware options NULLTERM and SPACEFILL to control string write. Build 109 : Solved problems: - Sometimes driver hangs after communication failed. Occured when a lot of data blocks with a very short poll time has been configured and processed. New functions: - none
FastReport.v4.15 for.Delphi.BCB.Full.Source企业版含ClientServer中文修正版支持Delphi 4-XE5 and C++Builder 6-XE5. D2010以上版本(D14_D19)安装必读 delphi2010以上版本(D14_D19)使用者安装时,请将res\frccD14_D19.exe更名名为frcc.exe frccD14_D19.exe是专门的delphi2010以上版本(D14_D19)编码器。其他低delphi版本,请使用frcc.exe FastReport® VCL is an add-on component that allows your application to generate reports quickly and efficiently. FastReport® provides all the tools necessary for developing reports, including a visual report designer, a reporting core, and a preview window. It can be used in Embarcadero (ex Borland and CodeGear) Delphi 4-XE5 and C++Builder 6-XE5. version 4.15 --------------- + Added Embarcadero RAD Studio XE5 support + Added Internal components for FireDac database engine + fixed bug with images in PDF export for OSX viewers + Added ability to set font charset to default in Style Editor - fixed duplex problem when printing several copies of the report - fixed problem with PNG images - fixed problem with TfrxPictureView transparent version 4.14 --------------- + Added Embarcadero RAD Studio XE4 support - [Lazarus] fixed bug with text output - [Lazarus] fixed bug with some visual controls in designer - [Lazarus] improved interface of the report preview and designer - [Lazarus] fixed bug with boolean propertyes in script code and expressions - fixed bug with endless loop in TfrxRichView - fixed bug with Unicode in TfrxMemoView appeared in previous release - improved MAPI interface in TfrxExportMail export - fixed some problems with allpication styles XE2/XE3 - improved compatibility with Fast Report FMX version 4.13 --------------- + Added Lazarus Beta support starts from Fast Report Professionnal edition. Current version allows preview, print and design report template under Windows and Linux platform (qt). + Added Embarcadero RAD Studio XE3 support - fixed compatibility with Fast Report FMX installed in the same IDE. This version can co exist with Fast Report FMX version at the same time. + published "Quality" property of TfrxPDFExport object + published "UseMAPI" property of TfrxExportMail object + published "PictureType" property to ODF export - fixed bug with expressions in RichEdit - fixed bug in multi-column reports - fixed exception in the report designer - fixed bug with URLs in Open Document Text and Open Document Spreadsheet exports - fixed format string in XLS OLE export - fixed format string in XLS BIFF8 export - fixed output of the check boxes on the highlighted lines in PDF export - fixed bug with PDF anchors - fixed bug when using two or more macroses in memo version 4.12 --------------- + added support of Embarcadero Rad Studio EX2 (x32/x64) + added export of Excel formulas in the BIFF export + added export of external URLs in the PDF export + added converter from Rave Reports ConverterRR2FR.pas + added Cross.KeepRowsTogether property + optimised merging cells in the BIFF export + added property DataOnly to exports + pictures format in all exports switched to PNG + improved number formats processing in the BIFF export + added property DataOnly to exports + added property TfrxODFExport.SingleSheet + added property TfrxSimpleTextExport.DeleteEmptyColumns + added property TfrxBIFFExport.DeleteEmptyRows + added progress bar to the BIFF export - fixed bug with frame for some barcode types - fixed wrong metafiles size in the EMF export - fixed processing of negative numbers in the OLE export - fixed bug in handling exceptions in the OLE export - fixed bug in creation of the progress bar (applicable to many exports) - fixed bug in the ODF export in strings processing - fixed bug in the OLE export in numbers formatting - fixed bug in the PDF export in rotating texts 90, 180 and 270 degrees - fixed bug in the ODF export in processing of headers and footers - fixed bug in the Text export in computing object bounds - fixed bug in the ODF export in UTF8 encoding - fixed hiding gridlines around nonempty cells in the BIFF export - fixed images bluring when exporting - fixed word wrapping in the Excel XML export version 4.11 --------------- + added BIFF8 XLS export filter + added to ODF export the Language property + [enterprise] added "scripts" folder for additional units ("uses" directive in report script) + [enterprise] added logs for scheduler (add info in scheduler.log) + [enterprise] added property "Reports" - "Scripts" in server configuration - set the path for "uses" directive in report script + [enterprise] added property "Http" - "MaxSessions" in server configuration - set the limit of maximum session threads, set 0 for unlimit + [enterprise] added property "Reports" - "MaxReports" in server configuration - set the limit of maximum report threads, set 0 for unlimit + [enterprise] added property "Logs" - "SchedulerLog" in server configuration - set the scheduler log file name + [enterprise] added property "Scheduler" - "Active" in server configuration - enable of scheduler + [enterprise] added property "Scheduler" - "Debug" in server configuration - enable writing of debug info in scheduler log + [enterprise] added property "Scheduler" - "StudioPath" in server configuration - set the path to FastReport Studio, leave blank for default - [enterprise] fixed bug with MIME types in http header (content-type) - [enterprise] fixed bug with default configuration (with missed config.xml) - [enterprise] fixed bug with error pages - fixed bug in XML export with the ShowProgress property - fixed bug in RTF export with font size in empty cells - fixed bug in ODF export with UTF8 encoding of the Creator field - fixed bug in XML export with processing special characters in strings - fixed bug in ODF export with properties table:number-columns-spanned, table:number-rows-spanned - fixed bug in ODF export with the background clNone color - fixed bug in ODF export with a style of table:covered-table-cell - fixed bug in ODF export with table:covered-table-cell duplicates - fixed bug in ODF export with excessive text:p inside table:covered-table-cell - fixed bug in ODF export with language styles - fixed bug in ODF export with spaces and tab symbols - fixed bug in ODF export with styles of number cells - fixed bug in ODF export with the background picture - fixed bug in ODF export with charspacing - fixed bug in ODF export with number formatting - fixed bug in ODF export with table-row tag - fixed bug in XLS(OLE) export with numbers formatting - fixed bug in RTF export with processing RTF fields - fixed bug with processing special symbols in HTML Export - fixed bug with UTF8 encoding in ODF export - fixed bug in PDF export with underlined, struck-out and rotated texts version 4.10 --------------- + added support of Embarcadero Rad Studio XE (Delphi EX/C++Builder EX) + added support of TeeChart 2010 packages (new series type aren't support in this release) + added a property TruncateLongTexts to the XLS OLE export that allows to disable truncating texts longer than a specified limit + added option EmbedProt which allows to disable embedding fonts into an encrypted PDF file + added TfrxDateEditControl.WeekNumbers property - fixed bug in XML and PDF exports with Korean charmap - fixed bug in the XLS XML export about striked-out texts - fixed bug about exporting an empty page via the XLS OLE export - fixed bug in the PDF export about coloring the background of pages - fixed bug in embedded designer when using break point in script - fixed bug with lost of focus in font size combo-box in designer - fixed bug with truncate of font size combo-box in Windows Vista/7 in designer (lost of vertical scroll bar) - fixed bug when lost file name in inherited report - fixed bug in multi-page report with EndlessHeight/EndlessWidth - fixed bug wit TfrxHeader.ReprintOnNewpage and KeepTogether - fixed bug in multi-column report with child bands - improved split mechanism (added TfrxStretcheable.HasNextDataPart for complicated data like RTF tables) - improved crosstab speed when using repeat band with crosstab object version 4.9 --------------- + added outline to PDF export + added anchors to PDF export - fixed bug with embedded TTC fonts in PDF export + added an ability to create multiimage TIFF files + added export headers/footers in ODF export + added ability to print/export transparent pictures (properties TfrxPictureView.Transparent and TfrxPictureView.TransparentColor) (PDF export isn't supported) + added new "split to sheet" modes for TfrxXMLExport + added support of /PAGE tag in TfrxRichView, engine automatically break report pages when find /PAGE tag + added ability to hide Null values in TfrxChartView (TfrxChartView.IgnoreNulls = True) + added ability to set any custom page order for printing (i.e. 3,2,1,5,4 ) + [enterprise] added variables "AUTHLOGIN" and "AUTHGROUP" inside the any report + [enterprise] now any report file can be matched with any (one and more) group, these reports are accessible only in matched groups + [enterprise] now you can set-up cache delays for each report file (reports.xml) + [enterprise] added new properties editor for reports in Configuration utility (see Reports tab) + [enterprise] added property "Xml" - "SplitType" in server configuration - allow to select split on pages type between none/pages/printonprev/rowscount + [enterprise] added property "Xml" - "SplitRowsCount" in server configuration - sets the count of rows for "rowscount" split type + [enterprise] added property "Xml" - "Extension" in server configuration - allow select between ".xml" and ".xls" extension for output file + [enterprise] added property "Html" - "URLTarget" in server configuration - allow select the target attribute for report URLs + [enterprise] added property "ReportsFile" - path to file with reports to groups associations and cache delays + [enterprise] added property "ReportsListRenewTimeout" in server configuration + [enterprise] added property "ConfigRenewTimeout" in server configuration + [enterprise] added property "MimeType" for each output format in server configuration + [enterprise] added property "BrowserPrint" in server configuration - allow printing by browser, added new template nav_print_browser.html + [enterprise] added dynamic file name generation of resulting formats (report_name_date_time) * [enterprise] SERVER_REPORTS_LIST and SERVER_REPORTS_HTML variables (list of available reports) depend from user group (for internal authentification) + added drawing shapes in PDF export (not bitmap) + added rotated text in PDF export (not bitmap) + added EngineOptions.IgnoreDevByZero property allow to ignore division by zero exception in expressions + added properties TfrxDBLookupComboBox.DropDownWidth, TfrxDBLookupComboBox.DropDownRows + added event TfrxCustomExportFilter.OnBeginExport + added ability to decrease font size in barcode object + added ability to inseret FNC1 to "code 128" barcode + added event TfrxPreview.OnMouseDown + added support of new unicode-PDF export in D4-D6 and BCB4-BCB6 * improved AddFrom method - anchor coping - fixed bug with WordWrap in PDF export - fixed bug with underlines in PDF export - fixed bug with rounded rectangles in PDF export - fixed CSV export to fit to the RFC 4180 specification - fixed bug with strikeout text in PDF export - fixed bug with incorrect export of TfrxRichView object in RTF format (wrong line spacing) - [enterprise] added critical section in TfrxServerLog.Write - fixed bug with setting up of the Protection Flags in the PDF export dialog window - fixed bug in PDF export (file structure) - fixed bug with pictures in Open Office Writer (odt) export - [enterprise] fixed bug with TfrxReportServer component in Delphi 2010 - fixed minor errors in Embarcedero RAD Studio 2010 - fixed bug with endless loop with using vertical bands together with page header and header with ReprintOnNewPage - fixed bug when using "Keeping" and Cross tables (incorrect cross transfer) - fixed bug with [CopyName#] macros when use "Join small pages" print mode - fixed bug when try to split page with endless height to several pages (NewPage, StartNewPage) - fixed bug with empty line TfrxRichView when adding text via expression - fixed bug when Footer prints even if main band is invisible (FooterAfterEach = True) - fixed resetting of Page variable in double-pass report with TfrxCrossView - fixed bug with loosing of aligning when split TfrxRichView - fixed buzz in reports with TfrxRichView when using RTF 4.1 version 4.8 --------------- + added support of Embarcadero Rad Studio 2010 (Delphi/C++Builder) + added TfrxDBDataset.BCDToCurrency property + added TfrxReportOptions.HiddenPassword property to set password silently from code + added TfrxADOConnection.OnAfterDisconnect event + added TfrxDesigner.MemoParentFont property + added new TfrxDesignerRestriction: drDontEditReportScript and drDontEditInternalDatasets + adedd checksum calculating for 2 5 interleaved barcode + added TfrxGroupHeader.ShowChildIfDrillDown property + added TfrxMailExport.OnSendMail event + added RTF 4.1 support for TfrxRichText object + [enterprise] added Windows Authentification mode + added confirmation reading for TfrxMailExport + added TimeOut field to TfrxMailExport form + added ability to use keeping(KeepTogether/KeepChild/KeepHeader) in multi-column report + added ability to split big bands(biggest than page height) by default * [enterprise] improved CGI for IIS/Apache server * changed PDF export (D7 and upper): added full unicode support, improved performance, decreased memory requirements old PDF export engine saved in file frxExportPDF_old.pas - changed inheritance mechanism, correct inherits of linked objects (fixups) - fixed bug with Mirror Mrgins in RTF, HTML, XLS, XML, OpenOffice exports - fixed bug when cross tab cut the text in corner, when corner height greater than column height - [fs] improved script compilation - improved WatchForm TListBox changet to TCheckListBox - improved AddFrom method - copy outline - Improved functional of vertical bands, shows memos placed on H-band which doesn't across VBand, also calculate expression inside it and call events (like in FR2) - Improved unsorted mode in crosstab(join same columns correctly) - Improved converter from Report Builder - Improved TfrxDesigner.OnInsertObject, should call when drag&drop field from data tree - improved DrillDownd mechanism, should work correct with master-detail-subtetail nesting - fixed bug with DownThenAcross in Cross Tab - fixed several bugs under CodeGear RAD Studio (Delphi/C++Builder) 2009 - fixed bug with emf in ODT export - fixed bug with outline when build several composite reports in double pass mode - fixed bug when group doesn't fit on the whole page - fixed "Page" and "Line" variables inside vertical bands - fixed bug with using KeepHeader in some cases - fixed bug with displacement of subreport when use PrintOnParent property in some cases - fixed small memory leak in subreports - fixed problem with PageFooter and ReportSymmary when use PrintOnPreviousPage property - fixed bug when designer shows commented functions in object inspector - fixed bug when designer place function in commented text block - fixed bug when Engine try to split non-stretcheable view and gone to endless loop - fixed bug with HTML tags in memo when use shot text and WordWrap - [enterprise] fixed bug with variables lost on refresh/export - fixed bug whih PDF,ODT export in Delphi4 and CBuilder4 - fixed bug with some codepage which use two bytes for special symbols (Japanese ans Chinese codepages) - fixed bug when engine delete first space from text in split Memo - fixed bug in multi-column page when band overlap stretched PageHeader - fixed bug with using ReprintOnNewPage version 4.7 --------------- + CodeGear RAD Studio (Delphi/C++Builder) 2009 support + [enterprise] enchanced error description in logs + added properties TfrxHTMLExport.HTMLDocumentBegin: TStrings, TfrxHTMLExport.HTMLDocumentBody: TStrings, TfrxHTMLExport.HTMLDocumentEnd: TStrings + improved RTF export (with line spacing, vertical gap etc) + added support of Enhanced Metafile (EMF) images in Rich Text (RTF), Open Office (ODS), Excel (XLS) exports + added OnAfterScriptCompile event + added onLoadRecentFile Event + added C++ Builder demos + added hot-key Ctrl + mouseWheel - Change scale in designer + added TfrxMemoView.AnsiText property - fixed bug in RTF export with EMF pictures in OpenOffice Writer - fixed some multi-thread isuues in engine, PDF, ODF exports - [enterprise] fixed integrated template of report navigator - [enterprise] fixed bug with export in Internet Explorer browser - fixed bug with font size of dot-matix reports in Excel and XML exports - fixed bug in e-mail export with many addresses - fixed bug in XLS export (with fast export unchecked and image object is null) - [enterprise] fixed bug in TfrxReportServer.OnGetVariables event - fixed bug in Calcl function - fixed memory leak in Cross editor - fixed progress bar and find dialog bug in DualView - fixed bug in PostNET and ean13 barcodes - fixed bug with TruncOutboundText in Dot Matrix report - fixed bugs with break points in syntaxis memo - improved BeforeConnect event in ADO - fixed bug in inhehited report with internal dataset - fixed bug in TfrxPanelControl with background color(Delphi 2005 and above) version 4.6 --------------- + added & , < , > to XML reader + added tag, the text concluded in tag is not broken by WordWrap, it move entirely + added ability to move band without objects (Alt + Move) + added ability to output pages in the preview from right to left ("many pages" mode), for RTL languages(PreviewOptions.RTLPreview) + added ability to storing picture cache in "temp" file (PreviewOptions.PictureCacheInFile) + added EngineOptions.UseGlobalDataSetList (added for multi-thread applications) - set it to False if you don't want use Global DataSet list(use Report.EnabledDataSet.Add() to add dataset in local list) + added new property Hint for all printed objects, hints at the dialog objects now shows in StatusBar + added new property TfrxDBLookupComboBox.AutoOpenDataSet (automatically opens the attached dataset after onActivate event) + added new property TfrxReportPage.PageCount like TfrxDataBand.RowCount + added new property WordWrap for dialog buttons (Delphi 7 and above). + added sort by name to data tree + added TfrxDesigner.TemplatesExt property + added TfrxStyles class in script rtti + changes in the Chart editor: ability to change the name of the series, ability to move created series, other small changes + [enterprise] added configurations values refresh in run-time + [enterprise] added new demo \Demos\ClientServer\ISAPI + [enterprise] added output to server printers from user browser (see config.xml "AllowPrint", set to "no" by default), note: experimental feature + [enterprise] added reports list refresh in run-time + [enterprise] added templates feature + [enterprise] improved speed and stability + [fs] added TfsScript.IncludePath property + [fs] added TfsScript.UseClassLateBinding property + [fs] fixed type casting from variant(string) to integer/float - changes in report inherit: FR get relative path from current loaded report(old reports based on application path works too) - corrected module for converting reports from Report Builder - fixed bug in CrossTab when set charset different from DEFAULT_CHARSET - fixed bug in RTF export with some TfrxRichView objects - fixed bug when print on landscape orientation with custom paper size - fixed bug when use network path for parent report - fixed bug with Band.Allowslit = True and ColumnFooter - fixed bug with drawing subreport on stretched band - fixed bug with embedded fonts in PDF export - fixed bug with long ReportTitle + Header + MaterData.KeepHeader = true - fixed bug with minimizing of Modal designer in BDS2005 and above - fixed bug with paths in HTML export - fixed bug with RTL in PDF export - fixed bug with SubReport in multi column page - fixed bug with Subreport.PrintOnParent = true in inherited report - fixed bug with SYMBOL_CHARSET in PDF export - fixed bug with the addition of datasets by inheritance report - fixed bug with width calculation when use HTML tags in memo - fixed compatibility with WideStrings module in BDS2006/2007 - fixed flicking in preview when use OnClickObject event - fixed free space calculation when use PrintOnPreviousPage - fixed preview bug with winXP themes and in last update - fixed subreports inherit - Thumbnail and Outline shows at right side for RTL languages - [fs] fixed bug with late binding version 4.5 --------------- + added ConverterRB2FR.pas unit for converting reports from Report Builder to Fast Report + added ConverterQR2FR.pas unit for converting reports from QuickReport to FastReport + added support of multiple attachments in e-mail export (html with images as example) + added support of unicode (UTF-8) in e-mail export + added ability to change templates path in designer + added OnReportPrint script event + added PNG support in all version (start from Basic) + added TfrxDMPMemoView.TruncOutboundText property - truncate outbound text in matrix report when WordWrap=false + added new frames styles fsAltDot and fsSquare + added new event OnPreviewDblClick in all TfrxView components + added ability to call dialogs event after report run when set DestroyForms = false + added ability to change AllowExpressions and HideZeros properties in cross Cells (default=false) + added IgnoreDupParams property to DB components + added auto open dataset in TfrxDBLookupComboBox + added new property TfrxADOQuery.LockType + added define DB_CAT ( for grouping DB components + added TfrxPictureView.HightQuality property(draw picture in preview with hight quality, but slow down drawing procedure) + [FRViewer] added comandline options "/print filename" and "/silent_print filename" + added unicode input support in RichEditor + added new define HOOK_WNDPROC_FOR_UNICODE ( - set hook on GetMessage function for unicode input support in D4-D7/BCB4-BCB6 + added ability chose path to FIB packages in "Recompile Wizard" + added new function TfrxPreview.GetTopPosition, return a position on current preview page + added new hot-keys to Code Editor - Ctrl+Del delete the word before cursor, Ctrl+BackSpace delete the word after cursor(as in Delhi IDE) + added "MDI Designer" example - all language resources moved to UTF8, XML - fixed bug with html tags [sup] and [sub] - fixed width calculation in TfrxMemoView when use HTML tags - fixed bug with suppressRepeated in Vertical bands - fixed bug when designer not restore scrollbars position after undo/redo - fixed visual bug in toolbars when use Windows Vista + XPManifest + Delphi 2006 - fixed bug in CalcHeight when use negative LineSpace - fixed bug in frx2xto30 when import query/table components, added import for TfrDBLookupControl component - fixed bug with Cross and TfrxHeader.ReprintOnNewPage = true - fixed converting from unicode in TfrxMemoView when use non default charset - [fs] fixed bug with "in" operator - fixed bug with aggregate function SUM - fixed bug when use unicode string with [TotalPages#] in TfrxMemoView - fixed bug with TSQLTimeStampField field type - fixed designer dock-panels("Object Inspector", "Report Tree", "Data Tree") when use designer as MDI or use several non-modal designer windows - fixed bug with hide/show dock-panels("Object Inspector", "Report Tree", "Data Tree"), now it restore size after hiding - fixed bug in XML/XLS export - wrong encode numbers in memo after CR/LF - fiexd bug in RTF export - fixed bug with undo/redo commands in previewPages designer - fixed bug with SuppressRepeated when use KeepTogether in group - fixed bug with SuppressRepeated on new page all events fired twice(use Engine.SecondScriptcall to determinate it) version 4.4 --------------- + added support for CodeGear RAD Studio 2007 + improved speed of PDF, HTML, RTF, XML, ODS, ODT exports + added TfrxReportPage.BackPictureVisible, BackPicturePrintable properties + added rtti for the TfrxCrossView.CellFunctions property + added properties TfrxPDFExport.Keywords, TfrxPDFExport.Producer, TfrxPDFExport.HideToolbar, TfrxPDFExport.HideMenubar, TfrxPDFExport.HideWindowUI, TfrxPDFExport.FitWindow, TfrxPDFExport.CenterWindow, TfrxPDFExport.PrintScaling + added ability recompile frxFIB packages in "recompile wizard" + added ability to set color property for all teechart series which support it + added, setting frame style for each frame line in style editor + added TfrxPreview.Locked property and TfrxPreview.DblClick event + added 'invalid password' exception when load report without crypt + added new parameter to InheritFromTemplate (by default = imDefault) imDefault - show Error dialog, imDelete - delete duplicates, imRename - rename duplicates + added property TfrxRTFExport.AutoSize (default is "False") for set vertical autosize in table cells * redesigned dialog window of PDF export * improved WYSIWYG in PDF export - fixed bug, the PageFooter band overlap the ReportSummary band when use EndlessHeight - fixed bug with lage paper height in preview - fixed bug with outline and encryption in PDF export - fixed bug with solid arrows in PDF export - fixed bug when print TfrxHeader on a new page if ReprintOnNewPage = true and KeepFooter = True - fixed bug when used AllowSplit and TfrxGroupHeader.KeepTogether - fixed page numbers when print dotMatrix report without dialog - fixed bug with EndlessHeight in multi-columns report - fixed font dialog in rich editor - [fs] fixed bug when create TWideStrings in script code - fixed bug with dialog form when set TfrxButtonControl.Default property to True - fixed twice duplicate name error in PreviewPages designer when copy - past object - fixed bug with Preview.Clear and ZmWholePage mode - fixed bug with using "outline" together "embedded fonts" options in PDF export - fixed multi-thread bug in PDF export - fixed bug with solid fill of transparent rectangle shape in PDF export - fixed bug with export OEM_CODEPAGE in RTF, Excel exports - fixed bug with vertical size of single page in RTF export - fixed bug with vertical arrows in PDF export - fixed memory leak with inherited reports version 4.3 --------------- + added support for C++Builder 2007 + added encryption in PDF export + added TeeChart Pro 8 support + added support of OEM code page in PDF export + added TfrxReport.CaseSensitiveExpressions property + added "OverwritePrompt" property in all export components + improved RTF export (WYSIWYG) + added support of thai and vietnamese charsets in PDF export + added support of arrows in PDF export * at inheritance of the report the script from the report of an ancestor is added to the current report (as comments) * some changes in PDF export core - fixed bug with number formats in Open Document Spreadsheet export - fixed bug when input text in number property(Object Inspector) and close Designer(without apply changes) - fixed bug in TfrxDBDataset with reCurrent - fixed bug with memory leak in export of empty outline in PDF format - line# fix (bug with subreports) - fixed bug with edit prepared report with rich object - fixed bug with shadows in PDF export - fixed bug with arrows in designer - fixed bug with margins in HTML, RTF, XLS, XML exports - fixed bug with arrows in exports - fixed bug with printers enumeration in designer (list index of bound) - fixed papersize bug in inherited reports version 4.2 --------------- + added support for CodeGear Delphi 2007 + added export of html tags in RTF format + improved split of the rich object + improved split of the memo object + added TfrxReportPage.ResetPageNumbers property + added support of underlines property in PDF export * export of the memos formatted as fkNumeric to float in ODS export - fixed bug keeptogether with aggregates - fixed bug with double-line draw in RTF export - fix multi-thread problem in PDF export - fixed bug with the shading of the paragraph in RTF export when external rich-text was inserted - fixed bug with unicode in xml/xls export - fixed bug in the crop of page in BMP, TIFF, Jpeg, Gif - "scale" printmode fixed - group & userdataset bugfix - fixed cross-tab pagination error - fixed bug with round brackets in PDF export - fixed bug with gray to black colors in RTF export - fixed outline with page.endlessheight - fixed SuppressRepeated & new page - fixed bug with long time export in text format - fixed bug with page range and outline in PDF export - fixed undo in code window - fixed error when call DesignReport twice - fixed unicode in the cross object - fixed designreportinpanel with dialog forms - fixed paste of DMPCommand object - fixed bug with the export of null images - fixed code completion bug - fixed column footer & report summary problem version 4.1 --------------- + added ability to show designer inside panel (TfrxReport.DesignReportInPanel method). See new demo Demos\EmbedDesigner + added TeeChart7 Std support + [server] added "User" parameter in TfrxReportServer.OnGetReport, TfrxReportServer.OnGetVariables and TfrxReportServer.OnAfterBuildReport events + added Cross.KeepTogether property + added TfrxReport.PreviewOptions.PagesInCache property - barcode fix (export w/o preview bug) - fixed bug in preview (AV with zoommode = zmWholePage) - fixed bug with outline + drilldown - fixed datasets in inherited report - [install] fixed bug with library path set up in BDS/Turbo C++ Builder installation - fixed pagefooter position if page.EndlessWidth is true - fixed shift bug - fixed design-time inheritance (folder issues) - fixed chm help file path - fixed embedded fonts in PDF - fixed preview buttons - fixed bug with syntax highlight - fixed bug with print scale mode - fixed bug with control.Hint - fixed edit preview page - fixed memory leak in cross-tab version 4.0 initial release --------------------- Report Designer: - new XP-style interface - the "Data" tab with all report datasets - ability to draw diagrams in the "Data" tab - code completion (Ctrl+Space) - breakpoints - watches - report templates - local guidelines (appears when you move or resize an object) - ability to work in non-modal mode, mdi child mode Report Preview: - thumbnails Print: - split a big page to several small pages - print several small pages on one big - print a page on a specified sheet (with scale) - duplex handling from print dialogue - print copy name on each printed copy (for example, "First copy", "Second copy") Report Core: - "endless page" mode - images handling, increased speed - the "Reset page numbers" mode for groups - reports crypting (Rijndael algorithm) - report inheritance (both file-based and dfm-based) - drill-down groups - frxGlobalVariables object - "cross-tab" object enhancements: - improved cells appearance - cross elements visible in the designer - fill corner (ShowCorner property) - side-by-side crosstabs (NextCross property) - join cells with the same value (JoinEqualCells property) - join the same string values in a cell (AllowDuplicates property) - ability to put an external object inside cross-tab - AddWidth, AddHeight properties to increase width&height of the cell - AutoSize property, ability to resize cells manually - line object can have arrows - added TfrxPictureView.FileLink property (can contain variable or a file name) - separate settings for each frame line (properties Frame.LeftLine, TopLine, RightLine, BottomLine can be set in the object inspector) - PNG images support (uncomment {$DEFINE PNG} in the file) - Open Document Format for Office Applications (OASIS) exports, spreadsheet (ods) and text (odt) Enterprise components: - Users/Groups security support (see a demo application Demos\ClientServer\UserManager) - Templates support - Dynamically refresh of configuration, users/groups D2010以上版本(D14_D19)安装必读 delphi2010以上版本(D14_D19)使用者安装时,请将res\frccD14_D19.exe更名名为frcc.exe frccD14_D19.exe是专门的delphi2010以上版本(D14_D19)编码器。其他低delphi版本,请使用frcc.exe



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